Wikipedia: Anarchism Anarchism (from Greek ἀν (without) + ἄρχειν (to rule) + ισμός (from stem -ιζειν), "without archons," "without rulers")Anarchy Merriam-Webster's Online dictionary is a political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which reject compulsory governmentMalatesta, Errico, Towards Anarchism. (the state) and support its elimination,Anarchism. Origins Schools of thought Mutualism Individualist anarchism Social anarchism Collectivist anarchism Anarchist communism Anarcho-syndicalism Recently-developed schools of thought Anarcho-capitalism Anarcha-feminism Green anarchism Anarchism without adjectives Anarchism as a social movement The First International Anarchism and organized labor The Russian Revolution The fight against fascism Internal issues and debates Notes and references Further reading External links General resources Biographical and bibliographical News Wikipedia: Autism | ICD9 = Classification Characteristics Social development Communication Repetitive behavior Other symptoms Causes Mechanism Pathophysiology Neuropsychology Screening Diagnosis Management Prognosis Epidemiology History References External links Wikipedia: Albedo The albedo of an object is the extent to which it diffusely reflects light, defined as Terrestrial albedo White-sky and black-sky albedo Astronomical albedo Other types of albedo Some examples of terrestrial albedo effects Fairbanks, Alaska The tropics Small scale effects Albedo of various terrains Urban areas Trees Snow Water Clouds Aerosol effects Black carbon See also References External links Wikipedia: Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi ( , literally "Father of Gazelle") is the capital and second largest city of the United Arab Emirates. It is also the capital and largest city of the emirate of Abu Dhabi, which is the largest of the seven emirates of the United Arab Emirates by size. History Location Language and literature Current ruler Economy Postage stamps Climate Transport City planning Planning problems Future development Major projects Culture and the arts Education Primary and secondary schools Colleges and universities Trivia See also References External links Wikipedia: A The letter A is the first letter in the Latin alphabet. Its name in English is a"a," Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, (1993) (), plural aes, as, or a's. History Usage Codes for computing See also Wikipedia: Alabama | Etymology of state name Geography Urban areas Climate History Demographics Race and ancestry Religion Economy Transportation Water ports Law and government State government Local and county government State politics National Politics Health and education Primary and secondary education Colleges and universities Professional Sports teams Miscellaneous topics See also Cultural sites Events Venues References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Achilles In Greek mythology, Achilles (also Akhilleus or Achilleus; Ancient Greek: ) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad, which takes for its theme the Wrath of Achilles. He embodies the archetype of the flawed hero, his defect being his pride, symbolized by his vulnerable heel. Birth Achilles in the Trojan War Telephus Cycnus of Colonae Troilus In the Iliad Achilles versus Hector Penthesilea Memnon, and the death of Achilles The fate of Achilles' armor Achilles and Patroclus The cult of Achilles in antiquity The cult of Achilles in modern times: The Achilleion in Corfu The name of Achilles Other stories about Achilles Achilles in Greek tragedy Achilles in Greek philosophy Spoken-word myths (audio) Achilles in later art Drama Fiction Film Television Music Namesakes Notes References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Abraham Lincoln | birth_place =Hardin County, Kentucky Lincoln 1809 to 1854 Early life Early political career Family Legislative activity Prairie lawyer Republican politics 1854–1860 Election of 1860 Civil War Secession winter 1860–1861 Fighting begins: 1861–1862 Emancipation Proclamation 1864 election and second inauguration Conducting the war effort Reconstruction Home front Redefining Republicanism Civil liberties suspended Domestic measures Assassination Presidential appointments Administration and cabinet Supreme Court Major presidential acts Signed as President States admitted to the Union Religious and philosophical beliefs Legacy and memorials See also Notes Bibliography Biographies Specialty topics Lincoln in art and popular culture Fiction Film and television Primary sources External links Project Gutenberg eTexts Wikipedia: Aristotle Aristotélēs Life Logic History Analytics and the Organon Modal logic Aristotle's scientific method Physics The five elements Chance and spontaneity Metaphysics Substance, potentiality and actuality Universals and particulars Biology and medicine Empirical research program Theory of biological being Aristotle's successor: Theophrastus The effect of Aristotle on Hellenistic medicine Practical Philosophy Ethics Politics Rhetoric and poetics The loss of his works Legacy List of Aristotle's works References Further reading See also External links Collections of Aristotle's works Articles on Aristotle Wikipedia: An American in Paris An American in Paris is a symphonic composition by American composer George Gershwin, composed in 1928. Inspired by time Gershwin had spent in Paris, it is in the form of an extended tone poem evoking the sights and energy of the French capital in the 1920s. Instrumentation Recordings Film Wikipedia: Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers. The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is among the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremonies in the world. The Oscar Ownership of Oscar statuettes Academy membership Nominations Awards night Venues Criticism Awards Academy Awards of Merit Current Awards Retired Awards Newest Awards Proposed Awards Special Awards Current Special Awards Retired Special Award See also Bibliography References External links Wikipedia: Actrius Actrius (Actresses) is a 1996 film directed by Ventura Pons. In the film, there are no male actors and the four leading actresses dubbed themselves in the Castillian version. Synopsis External links Wikipedia: Animalia (book) Animalia is an illustrated children's book by Graeme Base. It was published in 1986. External links Wikipedia: International Atomic Time International Atomic Time (TAI, from the French name Temps Atomique International) is a high-precision atomic time standard that tracks proper time on Earth's geoid. It is the principal realisation of Terrestrial Time, and the basis for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which is used for civil timekeeping all over the Earth's surface. Operation History See also External links Wikipedia: Altruism Altruism is selfless concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures, and central to many religious traditions. Altruism in ethics Altruism in ethology and evolutionary biology Altruism and the "Ecological Self" Altruism in politics Altruism in psychology and sociology Altruism and religion Altruism and love (the problem of love) See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Ang Lee | location = Pingtung, Taiwan Career overview Biography Education Dormancy after graduation Debut from Taiwan Coming to Hollywood Wuxia and the superhero genre Climbing the Mountain Lust, Caution Collaborations with James Schamus Personal life Linguistic diversity in Chinese films Films Director Writer Actor Editing Producer Awards Notes External links Wikipedia: Ayn Rand | birth_place = St. Petersburg, Russia Introduction Early life Childhood and education Immigration and marriage Fiction Early works The Fountainhead Atlas Shrugged Philosophy Objectivism: Ayn Rand's philosophical system Philosophical influences Aristotle Nietzsche Kant Objectivist movement Political and social views Economics Gender, sex, and race HUAC testimony Charity Later years Visiting lecturer Declining health and death Legacy Ayn Rand Institute The Objectivist Center and The Atlas Society Popular interest and influence Rand's work and academic philosophy Student activism Criticism Philosophical criticism Literary criticism Cult criticism Bibliography Nonfiction Posthumous works Film adaptations Screenplays References Further reading External links General information Rand's writing and speeches Films Organizations promoting Ayn Rand's philosophy Critical views Audio and video Wikipedia: Alain Connes |birth_place = France Work Awards and honours See also External links Wikipedia: Allan Dwan Allan Dwan (April 3, 1885 – December 28, 1981) was a pioneering Canadian-born American motion picture director, producer and screenwriter. Selected films Further reading External links Wikipedia: Economy of Algeria ==Historical trend== Historical trend Agriculture Wine Production Fishing Minerals Foreign trade References Wikipedia: Algeria (Arabic)The Pledge Etymology History Ancient history Islamization and Berber dynasties Ottoman rule French colonization Post-independence Geography Climate and hydrology Politics Maghreb Arab Union Administrative divisions Economy Agriculture Demographics Ethnic groups Education Culture Languages Military UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria See also References Books External links Wikipedia: Characters in Atlas Shrugged Characters in Ayn Rand's novel, Atlas Shrugged. Balph Eubank Ben Nealy Bertram Scudder Betty Pope Brakeman Cherryl Brooks Claude Slagenhop Cuffy Meigs Dagny Taggart Dan Conway Dick McNamara Eddie Willers Ellis Wyatt Francisco d'Anconia Fred Kinnan Hank Rearden Hugh Akston James Taggart The Looters Midas Mulligan The Moochers Mort Liddy Mr. Mowen Mystery Worker The unnamed newsstand owner Orren Boyle Owen Kellogg Paul Larkin Philip Rearden Quentin Daniels Ragnar Danneskjöld Rearden's mother Richard Halley Dr. Robert Stadler Dr. Simon Pritchett The Strikers Mr. Thompson Wesley Mouch Wet Nurse (Tony) Minor characters Planned characters excluded from the final version Father Amadeus Stacy Rearden Wikipedia: Atlas Shrugged Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand, first published in 1957 in the United States. It was Rand's last work of fiction before concentrating her writings exclusively on philosophy, politics and cultural criticism. Philosophy and writing Setting Plot Galt's speech Characters Social concepts Looters and moochers Sanction of the victim Social classes Companies Looter companies vs John Galt's Movement Comparison with real-life railways Comparison with real life railway industry Fictional technology Rearden metal Project X Galt's motor Project F Other Reception Early Reception Criticism Praise Film adaptation In popular culture Significant homages Side References See also Footnotes Further reading Publications Foreign language translations External links Reviews Wikipedia: Anthropology Anthropology (from Greek: ἄνθρωπος, anthropos, "human being"; and λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. to talk about human beings) is the study of humanity. Historical and institutional context Anthropology by country Anthropology in Britain Anthropology in the United States 1800s to 1940s Boasian anthropology Anthropology in Canada Anthropology in France Other countries Anthropology after World War II: Increasing dialogue in Anglophone anthropology Approaches to anthropology The "four field" approach Politics of anthropology Major discussions about anthropology Relations with the natural sciences and the humanities References Bibliography Fieldnotes and memoirs of anthropologists History of anthropology Textbooks and key theoretical works See also External links Organizations Resources Texts and tutorials Wikipedia: Archaeology |action=edit}} improve this article] if you can. Origins and definitions Importance and applicability History of archaeology Archaeological theories Methods Survey Excavation Analysis Academic sub-disciplines Historical archaeology Ethnoarchaeology Experimental Archaeology Archaeometry Cultural resources management Popular views of archaeology Public outreach Pseudoarchaeology Looting Descendant peoples Repatriation See also Lists Related topics Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Agricultural science Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often excluded from the definition. Agriculture and agricultural science Agricultural science: a local science History of agricultural science Prominent agricultural scientists Agricultural science and agriculture crisis Fields or related disciplines See also External links References Wikipedia: Alchemy In the history of science, alchemy refers to both an early form of the investigation of nature and an early philosophical and spiritual discipline, both combining elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, medicine, astrology, semiotics, mysticism, spiritualism, and art all as parts of one greater force. Alchemy has been practiced in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Persia, India, Japan, Korea and China, in Classical Greece and Rome, in the Muslim civilization, and then in Europe up to the 19th century—in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least 2500 years. Alchemy as a philosophical and spiritual discipline Alchemy and astrology Psychology Magnum Opus Modern Alchemy Alchemy in traditional medicine Nuclear Transmutation Alchemy as a subject of historical research History Etymology See also Other alchemical pages Other resources Related and alternative philosophies Substances of the alchemists Scientific connections Alchemy in Fiction Notes References External links Wikipedia: Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) is a function on a properly equipped aircraft or surface vehicle that periodically broadcasts its state vector (horizontal and vertical position, horizontal and vertical velocity) and other information. ADS-B supports improved use of airspace, reduced ceiling/visibility restrictions, improved surface surveillance, and enhanced safety such as conflict management. Benefits of ADS-B Theory of operation Relationship to surveillance radar Relationship to addressed ADS Relationship to other broadcast services Traffic information services-broadcast (TIS-B) Multilink gateway service Flight information services-broadcast (FIS-B) ADS-B physical layer 1090ES Universal access transceiver VDL mode 4 ADS-B supported applications Cockpit display of traffic information Airborne collision avoidance Conflict management ATS conformance monitoring Other applications U.S. implementation timetable FAA segment 1 (2006-2009) FAA segment 2 (2010-2014) FAA segment 3 (2015-2020) Non FAA implementations System design considerations of ADS-B References ADS-B technical and regulatory documents See also External links Commercial implementations of ADS-B Wikipedia: Austria | local_name = Republik Österreich Etymology History Prehistory and the Middle Ages Rise of The Habsburgs Austria as a European Power World War I and its aftermath Austrofascism and the Third Reich After the defeat of Germany, Allied Occupation Recent history Politics Political system Recent political developments Foreign policy Energy politics Military States Geography Climate Economy Education Demographics Politics concerning ethnic groups () Religion Culture Music Art and architecture Science, philosophy and economics Literature Cuisine Sports See also Notes and References References External links Wikipedia: American Samoa (Samoan)"Samoa, Let God Be First" History Pre-Western Contact Imperialization As a U.S. Territory Politics Nationality Administrative divisions Geography Official Protest to neighboring Samoa Territorial claim by Tokelau nationalists Economy Demographics Culture Sports See also References External links Wikipedia: Alien Alien may refer to: Science and engineering Film and television Computing Music Miscellaneous Wikipedia: Astronomer Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using physical laws. Today, that distinction has mostly disappeared. Modern astronomers External links See also Wikipedia: Amoeboid Amoeboids are cells that move or feed by means of temporary projections, called pseudopods (false feet). They have appeared in a number of different groups. Sub-phylum Sarcodina External links Wikipedia: American Standard Code for Information Interchange American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), generally pronounced ask-ee (is a character encoding] based on the [[English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that work with text. Overview History ASCII control characters Non-whitespace control characters ASCII printable characters Structural features Aliases Variants Incompatibility vs interoperability Unicode Order Culture See also ASCII extensions ASCII variants Further reading References External links Wikipedia: America America usually means either: Other places Art and entertainment Sports Others See also Wikipedia: Austin Austin may refer to: Geographical locations People Colleges Business Vessels Pop culture See also Wikipedia: Animation The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. Early animation Animation techniques Traditional animation Stop motion Computer animation Experimental animation techniques Other techniques and approaches See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Apollo In Greek and Roman mythology, Apollo (in Greek, Ἀπόλλων — Apóllōn or Ἀπέλλων — Apellōn), is one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian deities. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; archery; medicine and healing; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Etymology Origins of cult Cult sites Oracular shrines Festivals Attributes and symbols Roman Apollo In art Mythology Birth Youth Admetus Trojan War Niobe Consorts and children Female lovers Male lovers Birth of Hermes Other stories Musical contests Pan Marsyas Graeco-Roman epithets and cult titles Celtic epithets and cult titles Reception Media Notes References Further reading Primary sources Secondary sources External links Wikipedia: Andre Agassi |country = Early life Playing style Tennis career 1986-1993: Image is everything 1994-1997: Rivalry and injury 1998-2005: Elder statesman of the game 2006: The end of an era Retirement Personal and family life Philanthropy Career statistics Grand Slam finals Singles Wins (8) Runner-ups (7) ATP Masters Series finals Wins (17) Runner-ups (5) Career finals (94) Wins (60) Runner-ups (30) Doubles Wins (1) Runner-ups (3) Singles performance timeline ATP Tour career earnings Video games See also References External links Wikipedia: Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. The name comes from the Latin word for "south" and the Greek name of Asia, hence "South Asia". Classification Gérard Diffloth (1974) Ilia Peiros (2004) Gérard Diffloth (2005) References External links Wikipedia: Afro-Asiatic languages The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). Other names sometimes given to this family include "Afrasian", "Hamito-Semitic", "Lisramic" (Hodge 1972), "Erythraean" (Tucker 1966). Original homeland (Urheimat) Common features and cognates See also Etymological bibliography References Sources External links Wikipedia: Andorra |conventional_long_name = Principality of Andorra Origin and history of the name History Politics Parishes Geography Economy Demographics Religion Culture See also References External links Wikipedia: Arithmetic mean In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (or simply the mean) of a list of numbers is the sum of all the members of the list divided by the number of items in the list. If the list is a statistical population, then the mean of that population is called a population mean. Introduction Examples Formulation as an optimization problem Problems with some uses of the mean See also Further reading External links Wikipedia: American Football Conference The American Football Conference (AFC) is one of the two conferences of the National Football League (NFL). The AFC was created after the NFL merged with the American Football League (AFL) in early 1970. Logo Wikipedia: Animal Farm Animal Farm is a novella by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical allegory of Soviet totalitarianism. Published in 1945, the book reflects events leading up to and during the Stalin era. Overview Characters and their possible real life counterparts Pigs Humans Horses Significance Allusions to history, geography and current science British censorship and suppressed preface Controversies Cultural references Adaptations Editions See also References External links Wikipedia: Amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις "both" and βιος "life") are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectothermic (term for the animals whose body heat is regulated by the external environment; previously known as cold-blooded), and generally spend part of their time on land. Most amphibians do not have the adaptations to an entirely terrestrial existence found in most other modern tetrapods (amniotes). Classification Systems Circulatory Respiratory Excretion Nervous Reproductive Conservation Evolutionary history See also Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alaska | HighestElev = 6,193.7 Geography Climate History Demographics Race and ancestry Languages Religion Economy Permanent Fund Cost of living Taxes Transportation Roads Rail Marine transport Air transport Other transport Law and government Political leanings State government Representation in the U.S. Congress Important cities and towns Education Current issues Culture Libraries Food Music Movies filmed in Alaska State symbols See also References External links Wikipedia: Architecture (disambiguation) Architecture is the art and science of design and structure. Disambiguation Wikipedia: Agriculture Agriculture is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic growing/harvesting of plants, animals and other life forms. "Agriculture" is also short for the study of the practice of agriculture – more formally known as agricultural science. Overview Practices Etymology History Ancient origins Agriculture in the Middle Ages Renaissance to present day Crops World production of major crops in 2004 Crop alteration Livestock Environmental impact Genetic erosion in crop and livestock biodiversity Policy Agriculture and petroleum Agriculture safety and health See also References External links Wikipedia: Aldous Huxley | birth_place = Surrey, England Biography Early years Middle years Later years Descendants Literary themes Films Selected works Novels Short stories Poetry Travel writing Drama Essay collections Philosophy Biography and nonfiction Children's literature Collections Quotations References External links Wikipedia: Ada Meanings of Ada: People Places Other Culture Non-English words Abbreviations Wikipedia: Aberdeen (disambiguation) Aberdeen is a city in Scotland. It may also refer to: Africa Asia Australasia North America Other Wikipedia: Algae For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Ecology Study of algae Classification Forms of algae Algae and symbioses Life-cycle See also Numbers and distribution Distribution Britain and Ireland Northumberland and Durham (England) Northern Ireland Ireland: County Donegal Isle of Man Arctic Greenland Faröes Atlantic(east coast)/Europe Canary Islands. North America South Africa New Zealand Uses of algae Fertilizer Energy source Pollution control Stabilizing substances Nutrition Other uses Alginates Further references to the uses History of Phycology Collecting and preserving specimens Biological Exposure Scale Common names Examples References Cited references Identification General External links Wikipedia: Analysis of variance In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. The initial techniques of the analysis of variance were developed by the statistician and geneticist R. Overview Models Fixed-effects model Random-effects model Assumptions Logic of ANOVA Partitioning of the sum of squares The F-test ANOVA on ranks Effect size measures Examples See also References External links Wikipedia: Alkane Alkanes, also known as paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i.e. Isomerism Nomenclature Linear alkanes Branched alkanes Cyclic alkanes Trivial names Occurrence Occurrence of alkanes in the Universe Occurrence of alkanes on Earth Biological occurrence Ecological relations Production Petroleum refining Fischer-Tropsch Laboratory preparation Applications Physical properties Boiling point Melting point Conductivity Bond lengths and bond angles Conformation Spectroscopic properties Infrared spectroscopy NMR spectroscopy Mass spectrometry Chemical properties Reactions with oxygen Reactions with halogens Cracking Isomerization and reformation Other reactions Hazards See also References Further reading Wikipedia: Appeal In law, an appeal is a process for making a formal challenge to an official decision. Who can appeal Ability to appeal Direct or Collateral Notice of appeal How an appeal is processed United States Appellate review See also References Wikipedia: Answer An answer (derived from and, against, and the same root as swear) was originally a solemn assertion in opposition to some one or something, and thus generally any counter-statement or defence, a reply to a question or objection, or a correct solution of a problem. In the common law, an answer is the first pleading by a defendant, usually filed and served upon the plaintiff within a certain strict time limit after a civil complaint or criminal information or indictment has been served upon the defendant. References Wikipedia: Appellate court An appellate court is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal. In most jurisdictions, the court system is divided into at least three levels: the trial court, which initially hears cases and reviews evidence and testimony to determine the facts of the case; at least one intermediate appellate court; and a supreme court or court of last resort which primarily reviews the decisions of the intermediate courts. Institutional titles Authority to review See also Wikipedia: Arraignment Arraignment is a common law term for the formal reading of a criminal complaint, in the presence of the defendant, to inform him of the charges against him. In response to arraignment, the accused is expected to enter a plea. Guilty and Not Guilty pleas The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure Wikipedia: America the Beautiful }} History Idioms Takeoffs Lyrics Books See also References Sources/external links Wikipedia: Artificial language Artificial language is a term used to denote any language created by a person or a group of people for a certain purpose, usually when this purpose is hard to achieve by using natural languages. Disambiguation Wikipedia: Assistive technology Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. AT promotes greater independence for people with disabilities by enabling them to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to or changed methods of interacting with the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. Examples Telecare Assistive technology products Accessible computer input Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Learning difficulties Visual impairment Hardware Software Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Deafness and hearing loss Others References See also Further reading External links Wikipedia: Abacus An abacus (plurals abacuses or abaci), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool for performing arithmetic processes. Nowadays, abaci are often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires, but originally they were beads or stones moved in grooves in sand or on tablets of wood, stone, or metal. Origins Babylonian abacus Egyptian abacus Greek abacus Roman abacus Indian abacus Chinese abacus Japanese abacus Native American abaci Russian abacus School abacus Uses by the blind Notes References See also Further reading External links Tutorials Abacus curiosities Wikipedia: Acid An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA [H+A-]) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a hydrogen ion activity greater than in pure water, i.e. Definitions Properties Nomenclature Chemical characteristics Polyprotic acids Neutralization Weak acid/weak base equilibria Applications of acids Common acids Mineral acids Sulfonic acids Carboxylic acids References See also External links Wikipedia: Asphalt Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits. It is most commonly modeled as a colloid, with asphaltenes as the dispersed phase and maltenes as the continuous phase (though there is some disagreement amongst chemists regarding its structure). Background Known uses Ancient times Rolled asphalt concrete Mastic asphalt Asphalt emulsion Mixing with petroleum-contaminated soil Alternatives Etymology References See also External links Wikipedia: American National Standards Institute The American National Standards Institute or ANSI () is a private nonprofit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U. History Members The ANSI process Involvement in international standards activities Examples of standardization activities under the ANSI umbrella References See also External links Wikipedia: Argument In general parlance, an argument is a discussion involving conflicting points of view. General types of argument Specific arguments Mathematics, science and linguistics Other Wikipedia: Apollo 11 | Crew Backup crew Support crew Flight directors Nomenclature Mission highlights Launch and lunar landing Lunar surface operations Lunar ascent and return Communications link Mission insignia See also Photo gallery References Further reading and external links For young readers NASA reports Multimedia Wikipedia: Apollo 8 | Crew Backup crew Support crew Flight directors Planning The Saturn V The mission Launch and trans-lunar injection Coasting to the Moon Lunar sphere of influence Lunar orbit Earthrise Unplanned manual re-alignment Cruise back to Earth and re-entry Historical importance Mission audio Mission parameters Earth parking orbit Translunar injection burn Mission insignia Film Capsule location Depiction in fiction See also References External links Wikipedia: Astronaut An astronaut or cosmonaut ( ) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft. Definition Terminology Russia China Other terms Space travel milestones Age milestones Non-government milestones Self-funded travelers Training NASA candidacy requirements Commander and Pilot Mission Specialist Mission Specialist Educator Insignia Deaths See also References External links Wikipedia: A Modest Proposal A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick, commonly referred to as A Modest Proposal, is a satirical pamphlet written and published by Jonathan Swift in 1729. Swift suggests in his essay that the Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling children born into poverty as food for rich gentlemen and ladies. Details Swift’s targets and rhetoric in A Modest Proposal One of Swift’s targets: public population “solutions” The use of rhetoric Swift’s A Modest Proposal and Tertullian’s apology The economics of A Modest Proposal Attacking the maxim “people are the riches of a nation” Works cited Modern usage External links Wikipedia: Alkali metal The alkaline metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: Lithium (Li),sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). (Note that hydrogen, although nominally also a member of Group 1, very rarely exhibits behavior comparable to the alkali metals). Reaction in ammonia Trends Biological occurrences Reference material See also External links Wikipedia: Argument form In logic, the argument form or test form of an argument results from replacing the different words, or sentences, that make up the argument with letters, along the lines of algebra; the letters represent logical variables. The sentence forms which classify argument forms of common important arguments are studied in logic. References Notes See also Wikipedia: Alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it was in the past. There are other systems of writing such as logographies, in which each character represents a word, and syllabaries, in which each character represents a syllable, but alphabets are the most widespread writing system. Linguistic definition and context History Middle Eastern Scripts European alphabets Asian alphabets Types Alphabetic order Orthography and spelling See also Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. It is traditionally represented by the symbol Z. History Chemical properties New elements See also Notes Wikipedia: Anatomy Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana: separate, apart from, and temnein, to cut up, cut open) is the branch of biology that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that can include human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytotomy). Superficial anatomy Human anatomy Other branches See also References External links Wikipedia: Affirming the consequent Affirming the consequent is a formal fallacy, committed by reasoning in the form: See also Wikipedia: Andrei Tarkovsky | birthplace = Zavrazhye, Soviet Union Biography Childhood and early life Film school student Film career in the Soviet Union Film career outside the Soviet Union Work Cinematic Style Influences Awards, honors and recognitions Works Filmography Screenplays Stage productions Radio productions Writings Works about Tarkovsky Books Films References General References External links Wikipedia: Ambiguity Ambiguity is the property of words, terms, notations, signs, symbols, and concepts (within a particular context) as being undefined, indefinable, multi-defined, or without an obvious definition, and thus having a misleading, or unclear, meaning. Linguistic forms Intentional application of ambiguity Ambiguity in abbreviations and jargon Disambiguating enterprise miscommunication Psychology and Management Ambiguity in Music Ambiguity in Law Constructed language Ambiguity in Physics and mathematics Examples of potentially confusing ambiguous mathematical expressions Ambiguity of notations in quantum optics and quantum mechanics Examples of ambiguous terms in Physics Pedagogic use of ambiguous expressions Ambiguity in citations References See also External links Wikipedia: Animal (disambiguation) An animal is a taxonomic member of the Kingdom [may also refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Aardvark The Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) ("Digging foot"), sometimes called "antbear", "aardvark." Encyclopædia Britannica. Description Behavior Habitat Mythology Notes and references Wikipedia: Aardwolf | image = Proteles cristatus1.jpg Physical characteristics Distribution and habitat Behavior Interaction with humans References External links Wikipedia: Adobe An adobe is a natural building material mixed from sand, clay, and straw, dung or other fibrous materials, which is shaped into bricks using frames and dried in the sun. It is similar to cob and mudbrick. Composition of adobe Adobe bricks Thermal properties Adobe Wall Construction Adobe roof Roof Materials Traditional Adobe Roof Raising a traditional Adobe Roof Attributes Around the world See also External links Wikipedia: Adventure An adventure is an activity that comprises risky, dangerous and uncertain experiences. The term is more popularly used in reference to physical activities that have some potential for danger, such as skydiving, mountain climbing, and extreme sports. Adventure Sociology stubs Wikipedia: Agatho Agatho is the name of several people including: Lists of ambiguous human names Wikipedia: Agave Agave is the name of a succulent plant of a large botanical genus of the same name, belonging to the family Agavaceae. Description Commonly grown species Agave americana Agave attenuata Uses Ethnomedical uses Warnings Taxonomy Images of Agave species or cultivars Species References Wikipedia: Asia Asia Etymology Definition and boundaries 'Asian' as a demonym Territories and regions Economy Trade blocs Natural resources Manufacturing Financial and other services Early history Languages and literature Nobel prizes Beliefs Mythology Religions Abrahamic Indian Chinese Other See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aruba Aruba is a -long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, north of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Falcón State, Venezuela. It is part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. History Politics Law Education Geography Economy Demographics Culture Language Infrastructure Utilities on the island Places of interest See also References External links Wikipedia: Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. The final draft was written in the summer of 1777 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777 in York, Pennsylvania after a year of debate. Background Ratification Article summaries The end of the war Function Signatures Presidents of the Congress Gallery Revision and replacement Notes References Further reading See also External links Wikipedia: Aa River Aa is the name of a large number of small European rivers. The word is derived from the continental common Germanic word aha, cognate to the Latin aqua, meaning water. Ambiguous place names Wikipedia: Arthur Koestler Arthur Koestler CBE (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. He wrote journalism, novels, social philosophy, and books on scientific subjects. Life Speaking out against Nazi atrocities during World War II Multilingualism Women Mixed legacy Politics Journalism Paranormal and scientific interests Judaism Hallucinogens Cultural influence and references Bibliography Autobiography Biographies Books by Koestler (excluding autobiography) Writings as a contributor Notes External links Wikipedia: Atlantic Ocean The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions; with a total area of about 106.4 million square kilometers (41. Geography Ocean bottom Water characteristics Climate History Economy Terrain Elevation extremes Natural resources Natural hazards Current environmental issues Marine pollution Major ports and harbours See also References External links Wikipedia: Arthur Schopenhauer (Frankfurt-am-Main) | Life Thought Philosophy Will and desire Metaphysics Aesthetics Ethics Psychology Political and social thought Politics Views on women Heredity and eugenics Views on homosexuality Influences Kant Influence Schopenhauer vs. Hegel Schopenhauer and Buddhism Selected bibliography See also Notes References Secondary literature External links Wikipedia: Angola (Latin)"Unity Provides Strength" History Colonial era Independence Civil war Ceasefire with UNITA Politics Administrative divisions Military Police Geography Economy Demography Culture See also Further reading References External links Wikipedia: Geography of Angola Angola is located on the South Atlantic Coast of West Africa between Namibia and the Republic of the Congo. It also is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia to the east. Geology Location Area Area comparative Capital Major Cities Land boundaries Climate Terrain Coastal lowland Hills and mountains High plateau Drainage Land use and hazards Environment - current issues Flora and fauna Extreme points References See also Wikipedia: Demography of Angola The demographics of Angola consist of three main ethnic groups, each speaking a Bantu language: Ovimbundu 37%, Mbundu 25%, and Bakongo 13%. Other groups include Chokwe (or Lunda), Ganguela, Nhaneca-Humbe, Ambo, Herero, and Xindunga. Population growth Sex ratio Disease Ethnic groups Religions Literacy References Wikipedia: Politics of Angola Politics of Angola takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Angola is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Executive branch Legislative branch Political parties and elections Judicial branch Administrative divisions Political pressure groups and leaders International organization participation Wikipedia: Economy of Angola The Economy of Angola is the fastest-growing economy in Africa,Birgitte Refslund Sørensen and Marc Vincent. Caught Between Borders: Response Strategies of the Internally Displaced, 2001. History 1990s 2000s Overview Foreign trade Resources Petroleum Diamonds Iron Further reading References External links Wikipedia: Communications in Angola This article is about communications in Angola: Telephone Radio Television Internet References External links Wikipedia: Transport in Angola Transport in Angola comprises: Railways Railway links to adjacent countries Maps Towns served by rail North line Middle line Central line South Line Timeline 2007 Highways Waterways Pipelines Ports and harbors Atlantic Ocean Merchant marine Airports Airports - with paved runways Airports - with unpaved runways National Airline References Wikipedia: Angolan Armed Forces The Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) is headed by a Chief of Staff who reports to the Minister of Defense. Equipment External links Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Angola The foreign relations of Angola are based on Angola's strong support of U.S. Angola-China relations Angola-United States relations See also References Wikipedia: Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Early life Texas Army U.S. Army Civil War Shiloh Epitaph References Notes External links Further reading Wikipedia: Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the world's five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers may call it the Arctic Mediterranean Sea or simply the Arctic Sea, classifying it as one of the mediterranean seas of the Atlantic Ocean. Geography History Climate Natural resources Natural hazards Animal and plant life Environmental concerns Major ports and harbors See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Android An android is a robot designed to resemble a human, usually both in appearance and behavior. The word derives from the Greek andr-, meaning "man, male", and the suffix -eides, used to mean "of the species; alike" (from eidos "species"). Android projects Usage and distinctions Ambiguity Androids in fiction Bio androids in fiction Notes References Further reading See also External links Wikipedia: Alberta Wild rose Geography Economy Industry Agriculture and forestry Government Education Infrastructure Culture Tourism Demographics History Ecology Fauna Flora See also References External links Wikipedia: Arctic Circle The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. It is the parallel of latitude that (as of 2000) runs 66° 33′ 39″ (or 66. Geography and demographics See also References External links Wikipedia: Assault rifle An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle or carbine firing ammunition with muzzle energies intermediate between those typical of pistol and battle rifle ammunition. Assault rifles are categorized between light machine guns, intended more for sustained automatic fire in a support role, and submachine guns, which fire a handgun cartridge rather than a rifle cartridge. Definition History The changing face of infantry combat 1900s–1930s: Pre-Sturmgewehr Light automatic rifles 1930s: Automatic intermediate weapons 1940s–early 1950s: Maschinenkarabiner, Sturmgewehr & AK-47 Late 1950s–1960s: Lighter rifles & smaller bullets 1970s–1990s: New form factors, features & battlefield 21st Century Developments: The first decade: Shorter barrels, bigger bullets, more energy The future Notes References See also External links Wikipedia: List of anthropologists The following list is obsolete. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N< O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Wikipedia: Astronomy and Astrophysics Astronomy and Astrophysics (abbreviated as A&A in the astronomical literature, or else Astron. Astrophys. Member Countries External links Wikipedia: Actinopterygii The Actinopterygii (the plural form of Actinopterygius) comprise the class of the ray-finned fishes. Classification Notes Wikipedia: Albert Einstein | birth_place = Ulm, Württemberg, Germany Youth and schooling Patent office Annus Mirabilis Light and general relativity Nobel Prize Unified field theory Collaboration and conflict Bose–Einstein statistics Schrödinger gas model Einstein refrigerator Bohr versus Einstein Religious views Politics Zionism Nazism Atomic bomb Cold War era Death Legacy Honors Impact on popular culture See also Publications Notes External links Wikipedia: Afghanistan 2.5 Etymology Origin of the word "Afghan" Meaning and origin of the name "Afghanistan" Geography History Islamic conquest Hotaki dynasty Durrani Empire European influence Soviet invasion and civil war 2001-present war in Afghanistan Government and politics Military and law enforcement Administrative divisions Economy Demographics Languages Ethnic groups Religions Largest cities Culture Infrastructure Communications and technology Transportation Education See also Bibliography References and footnotes External links Wikipedia: Albania |official_languages = Albanian Etymology History Albania in Antiquity Kingdom of Illyria Greek colonies - Hellenistic Era Roman and Byzantine Era Ottoman Era Effects of the Balkan Wars Monarchy World War II Holocaust People's Republic Return to capitalism Administrative division Geography Demographics Religion Economy Armed forces Gallery See also References External links Wikipedia: Allah Allah (, ) is the standard Arabic word for "God". The term is most likely derived from a contraction of the Arabic article al- and "deity, god" to meaning "the [sole] deity, God" (ho theos monos); another theory traces the etymology of the word to the Aramaic Alāhā. Etymology Usage Other Cross-religion comparison Islamic vs pre-Islamic Arabian conceptions Islamic vs Jewish conceptions Islamic vs Christian conceptions Typography Unicode See also External links References Wikipedia: Antarctica Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, overlying the South Pole. It is situated in the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. History Geography Geology Geological history and paleontology Paleozoic era (540–250 mya) Mesozoic era (250–65 mya) Gondwana breakup (160–23 mya) Geology of present-day Antarctica Climate Population Flora and fauna Flora Fauna (Animals) Politics Antarctic territories Economy Transport Research Princess Elisabeth Polar Science Station Meteorites Effects of global warming See also References External links Wikipedia: Argentina |common_name = Argentina Etymology History Politics Government Military Provinces Geography Main features Geographic regions Rivers and lakes Coastal areas and seas Climate Enclaves and exclaves Flora and fauna Flora Fauna Economy Contemporary developments Sectors Transportation Water supply and sanitation Population Contemporary figures Cities and metropolitan areas Demographics Ethnicity Minorities Illegal immigrants Urbanization Culture Literature Film and theatre Painting and sculpture Food and drink Sports Music Religion Language Education Holidays Science and technology Communications and media Print Radio and television Trivia International rankings See also References Bibliography External links Directories Wikipedia: Azerbaijan 0.736 Geography Administrative divisions Landscape Climate Nature and ecology History Etymology of the name Ancient History Medieval History First Independence and Soviet Azerbaijan Newly Independent Azerbaijan Government and politics Foreign relations Military Economy Transportation and communications Demographics Religion Culture References External links General references Portals Miscellaneous Wikipedia: Amateur astronomy Amateur astronomy, a subset of astronomy, is a hobby whose participants enjoy studying celestial objects. Amateur astronomy objectives Common tools Common techniques Scientific research Societies Famous amateur astronomers References See also Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aikido Japan Etymology and basic philosophy History Initial development Religious influences International dissemination Proliferation of independent organisations Physical training General fitness and training Roles of uke and nage Initial attacks Basic techniques Implementations Weapons training Multiple attackers and randori Injuries Mental training Ki Uniforms and ranking Criticisms References External links Wikipedia: Art Art refers to a diverse range of human activities and artifacts, and may be used to cover all or any of the arts, including music, literature and other forms. It is most often used to refer specifically to the visual arts, including mediums such as painting, sculpture, and printmaking. Usage Theories Utility Classification disputes Controversial art Art, class and value Forms, genres, mediums, and styles History Characteristics Skill Judgments of value Communicating emotion Cultural traditions See also Lists Related topics Notes and references Bibliography Further reading External links Wikipedia: Actor An actor, actress or player (see terminology) is a person who acts in a dramatic production and who works in film, television, theatre, or radio in that capacity. The ancient Greek word for an actor, hypokrites, when rendered as a verb means "to interpret";Hypokrites (related to our wod for hypocrite) also means, less often, "to answer" the tragic chorus. Terminology History Techniques General As opposite sex Acting awards See also Further reading Works cited References External links Wikipedia: Agnostida Agnostida (the agnostids) is an order of trilobite. These small trilobites first appeared toward the end of the Early Cambrian and thrived in the Middle Cambrian. References External links Wikipedia: Abortion An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. This can occur spontaneously or accidentally as with a miscarriage, or be artificially induced by medical, surgical or other means. Definitions Incidence By gestational age and method By personal and social factors Unsafe abortion (legal) Forms of abortion Spontaneous abortion Induced abortion Surgical abortion Medical abortion Other means of abortion Health considerations Pain management Failed abortion Unsafe abortion (health) Suggested effects Breast cancer hypothesis Mental health History of abortion Social issues Effect upon crime rate Fetal pain debate Sex-selective abortion Unsafe abortion (social) Abortion debate Public opinion Abortion law See also References External links Wikipedia: Abstract (law) In law, an abstract is a brief statement that contains the most important points of a long legal document or of several related legal papers. Abstract of Title Clear Title Patent law Administrative process Notes References See also External links Wikipedia: Alan Alda | birthdate = Biography Family and early life Early Acting Career M*A*S*H* Series (1972-1983) After M*A*S*H The West Wing, The Aviator, Later roles Charitable Work, Other Interests Personal Beliefs Acting Roles Filmography Television Personal Memoirs Audio books Awards and Nominations Awards Nominations References Further reading External links Wikipedia: American football American football, known in the United States simply as football,In North America, the term "football" may refer to either American football or to the similar sport of Canadian football, the meaning usually being clear from the context. This article describes the American variant. Organization of football in the United States Professional and semi-professional play University and collegiate play High school play Youth leagues Football calendar Outside the United States Rules Field and players Start of Halves Game duration Advancing the ball Change of possession Scoring Kickoffs and free kicks Penalties Variations Players Offense Defense Special teams Uniform numbering Basic strategy Physicality History See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: American Revolutionary War John Burgoyne Combatants before 1778 Armies, militias, and mercenaries African-Americans and Native Americans War in the north, 1775–1780 Massachusetts Two Quebec Regiments join the Americans Canada New York and New Jersey Saratoga and Philadelphia Saratoga campaign Philadelphia campaign An international war, 1778–1783 Widening of the naval war West Indies and Gulf Coast India and the Netherlands Southern theater Northern and western Frontier Yorktown and the War's end Costs of the War Casualties Financial costs Historical assessment Battles of the War See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Ampere The ampere, in practice often shortened to amp, (symbol: A) is a unit of electric current, or amount of electric charge per second. The ampere is an SI base unit, and is named after André-Marie Ampère, one of the main discoverers of electromagnetism. Definition Explanation Proposed future definition CIPM recommendation See also References External links Wikipedia: Glossary of American football The following terms are used in American football and Canadian football, but see also the glossary of Canadian football. 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also References Wikipedia: Algorithm In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a definite list of well-defined instructions for completing a task; that given an initial state, will proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as probabilistic algorithms, incorporate randomness. Etymology Why algorithms are necessary: an informal definition Formalization of algorithms Termination Expressing algorithms Implementation Example Algorithm analysis Classes Classification by implementation Classification by design paradigm Classification by field of study Classification by complexity Legal issues History: Development of the notion of "algorithm" Origin of the word Discrete and distinguishable symbols Manipulation of symbols as "place holders" for numbers: algebra Mechanical contrivances with discrete states Mathematics during the 1800s up to the mid-1900s Emil Post (1936) and Alan Turing (1936-7, 1939) J. B. Rosser (1939) and S. C. Kleene (1943) History after 1950 See also Notes References Secondary references External links Wikipedia: Annual plant Botanically, an annual plant is a plant that usually germinates, flowers and dies in one year. True annuals will only live longer than a year if they are prevented from setting seed. Summer annuals Winter annuals See also Wikipedia: Atlas (disambiguation) Atlas, in modern usage, most commonly refers to a collection of maps, traditionally bound into book form. Greek mythology Science Computing Geography Entertainment Literature and press Comics Companies People Military Other Wikipedia: Mouthwash For the Kate Nash song see "Mouthwash (song)" History Usage Composition See also External links References Wikipedia: Alexander the Great Alexander the Great (Greek: or ,The name derives from the Greek words (to repel, shield, protect) and (man; genitive case ), and means "protector of men."Online Etymology Dictionary, Alexander, Retrieved on 2007-06-09 Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC),bbc. Early life Ascent of Macedon Period of conquests Fall of the Achaemenid Persian Empire Hostility Invasion of India After India Death Cause Successor Body Testament Personal life Legacy and division of the empire Influence on Ancient Rome Character Greek and Latin sources Legend In the Bible In the Qur'an In the Shahnameh Names In ancient and modern culture Notes References Further reading Non-Greek/Latin perspectives External links Wikipedia: Alfred Korzybski | birth_place = Warsaw, Congress Poland. Early life and career General semantics Korzybski and to be Anecdote about Korzybski Criticisms Impact See also External links Further reading Wikipedia: Asteroids (arcade game) Asteroids is a video arcade game released in 1979 by Atari Inc. It was one of the most popular and influential games of the Golden Age of Arcade Games. Description Gameplay Technical description Legacy Ports Clones and bootlegs Record breaking gameplay Asteroids in popular culture References External links Asteroids in the news Wikipedia: Asparagales Asparagales is an order of flowering plants. The order must include the family Asparagaceae, but other families included in the order have varied markedly between different classifications. APG II system APG system (1998) Kubitzki system Dahlgren system Other systems References External links Wikipedia: Alismatales Alismatales is an order of flowering plants. The order will of necessity contain the family Alismataceae. Taxonomy References External links Wikipedia: Apiales The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families given at right are typical of newer classifications, though there is some slight variation, and in particular the Torriceliaceae may be divided. References Wikipedia: Asterales The Asterales are an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants which include the composite family Asteraceae (sunflowers, daisies, thistles etc.) and its related families. Families Evolution and biogeography Economical importance References Wikipedia: Asteroid Asteroids, also called minor planets or planetoids, are a class of astronomical objects. The term asteroid is generally used to indicate a diverse group of small celestial bodies in the solar system that orbit around the Sun. Asteroids in the solar system Asteroid classification Orbit groups and families Problems with spectral classification Asteroid discovery Historical methods Manual methods of the 1900s and modern reporting Computerized methods Naming asteroids Overview: naming conventions Numbering asteroids Sources for names Special naming rules Asteroid symbols Asteroid exploration Asteroids in fiction References See also External links Wikipedia: Allocution Generally, to allocute in law means "to speak out formally." In the field of apologetics, allocution is generally done in defense of a belief. See also Wikipedia: Affidavit An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant or deponent) and witnessed (as to the veracity of the affiant's signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public. The name is Medieval Latin for he has declared upon oath. United States England and Wales Republic of Ireland See also Wikipedia: Aries (constellation) Aries (, , symbol , ) is one of the constellations of the zodiac. It lies between Pisces to the west and Taurus to the east. Notable features Notable deep sky objects Graphic visualization Astrology and religion References External links Wikipedia: Aquarius (constellation) Aquarius (, ) is the eleventh sign of the zodiac, situated between Capricornus and Pisces. Its symbol is (), , representing part of a stream of water. Notable planetary systems Notable deep sky objects Mythology Astrology Alternative visualization See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Anime ( in Japanese, but typically or in English) is an abbreviation of the English word "animation", originating in Japan. Although the term is used in Japan to refer to animation in general, in English usage the term most popularly refers to material originating from Japan, a subset of animation. History Terminology Word usage Synonyms Visual characteristics Character design Animation technique Genres Demographic Thematic Distribution Influence on Western culture See also References External links Wikipedia: Asterism Asterism may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Ankara within Turkey. History Attractions Museums Archeological sites Modern monuments Mosques Parks Shopping Culture and education Universities Transportation Sports Other Turkish Angora Ankara image gallery Sister Cities See also Notable people from Ankara Musicians and music bands References and notes External links Wikipedia: Arabic language |pronunciation=/alˌʕa.raˈbij. Literary and Modern Standard Arabic Influence of Arabic on other languages Arabic and Islam History Dialects and descendants Sounds Vowels Consonants Syllable structure Stress Dialectal variations Grammar Writing system Calligraphy Transliteration Numerals Language-standards regulators Studying Arabic See also References Phonology Dialectology Notes External links General Online Arabic Lexicons Online Courses Online Arabic keyboards Dictionaries Wikipedia: Apocalypse Now Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award, Cannes Palme d'Or and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. It tells the story of Army Captain Benjamin L. Synopsis Plot Opening Scene Kilgore Escort Tiger Playboy Bunnies R&R Sampan Inspection Do Lung Bridge Outpost Surprise Conflicts Kurtz Alternative versions Endings Apocalypse Now Redux Adaptation Background and production Controversy over the Killing of a Water Buffalo for the Film Responses Home video release aspect ratio issues Principal cast Awards References External links Wikipedia: Alfred Hitchcock | location = Leytonstone, London, England Life Childhood and youth Pre-War British career Hollywood Peak years and Knighthood Later Work Death Themes and devices Suspense Audience as voyeur MacGuffin Signature appearances in his films Motifs Cinematic experimentation Character and its effects on his films Style of working Awards Television and books Filmography Phobias Frequent collaborators Actors Film Crew Screenwriters See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Anaconda Anacondas are four species of aquatic boa inhabiting the swamps and rivers of the dense forests of tropical South America. The Yellow Anaconda can be found as far south as northern Argentina. Etymology Size In captivity References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Altaic languages Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languagesLanguage Family Trees: Altaic spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia.Altaic Language Family Tree Ethnologue report for Altaic. History of the hypothesis The controversy over Altaic Urheimat Reconstructed phonology Consonants Vowels Prosody Sound correspondences Morphological correspondences Selected cognates Personal pronouns Numerals and related words Others Literature Further reading References and notes See also External links Wikipedia: Austrian German Austrian German (Österreichisches Deutsch) is the national standard variety of the German language spoken in Austria and South Tyrol. Overview Subgroups Intercomprehensibility and regional accents Grammar Perfect tense Vocabulary Standard German in Austria Regional dialects See also Literature Wikipedia: Axiom of choice In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory. Intuitively speaking, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of bins, each containing at least one object, exactly one object can be selected from each bin, even if there are infinitely many bins and there is no "rule" for which object to pick from each. Statement Variants Usage Drawbacks Alternatives & Weaker forms Independence Stronger axioms Equivalents Category theory Stronger forms of ¬AC Results requiring ¬AC Quotes References External links Wikipedia: Attila the Hun Attila (406 – 453), also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God, was King of the Huns from 434 until his death. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea (see map below). Background Shared kingship Sole ruler Attila in the west Invasion of Italy and death Appearance, character, and name Fictional representations Comedic examples Notes and References Classical texts Recommended modern works Historical Fiction based on Attila the Hun External links Wikipedia: Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea (, , Aigaío Pélagos; , Adalar Denizi) is a sea arm of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e. Etymology History Geography See also Notes Wikipedia: A Clockwork Orange A Clockwork Orange is a speculative fiction novel by Anthony Burgess, published in 1962, and was later the basis for a 1971 film adaptation by Stanley Kubrick. Plot introduction Explanation of the novel's title Point of view from one person Plot summary Part 1: Alex's world Part 2: The Ludovico Technique Part 3: After prison Characters Differences in U.S. editions Nadsat Awards and nominations Other adaptations Release details See also References External links Wikipedia: Amsterdam Netherlands History Geography The canals Climate Economy Retail Demography Religion Culture Art Fashion Tourist attractions Red light district Sports Transportation Education Government Definitions City government National government Symbols References External links Wikipedia: Museum of Work The Museum of Work, or Arbetets museum, is a museum located in Norrköping, Sweden. The museum can be found in the 19th century building The Iron in the Motala ström river in central Norrköping. External links Wikipedia: Audi Never Follow History The origins of Audi The Auto Union era The four-ring logo Pause and a new start The modern era of Audi Models Current models Discontinued models Hybrid vehicles Racing models Prototypes and concept cars Auto racing Rallying Motorsports in the USA Touring cars Sports car racing Technology See also External links References Wikipedia: Aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle which is able to fly through the air (or through any other atmosphere). All the human activity which surrounds aircraft is called aviation. Different kinds of aircraft Lighter than air — aerostats Heavier than air — aerodynes Aeroplanes Rotorcraft Other methods of lift Propulsion Unpowered Propeller driven Jet engines Other forms of propulsion Classification by use Military aircraft Civil aircraft Commercial aircraft General aviation Experimental aircraft Model aircraft History Manufacturers and types Environmental effects See also Lists Topics References External links Wikipedia: Aphex Twin Limerick, Ireland History Early life Early career: early 1990s Gaining success: 1992-1999 2000-present Background The Aphex Twin name Influences Influence on others Braindance Aphex Twin's press Equipment Discography Citations and references External links Wikipedia: Alfred Nobel | birth_place = Stockholm, Sweden Personal background Dynamite The Prizes References Notes External links Wikipedia: Alexander Graham Bell | death_place = Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada. Early years First invention Early work with speech Education First experiments with sound Family tragedy Canada Work with the deaf Continuing experimentation Telephone The race to the patent office Later developments Competitors Family life Later inventions Metal detector Hydrofoils Aeronautics Eugenics Awards and honours Death Honours and tributes See also References External links Bell's patents Movie biographies Wikipedia: Amhrán na bhFiann (pronounced ) is the national anthem of the Republic of Ireland. The song is also known by its English language title, The Soldier's Song, and as The National Anthem of Ireland (). Adoption Political implications Arrangement Lyrics Complete lyrics Footnotes External links Media files Wikipedia: Anatolia Anatolia (, "") is a geographic region whose name comes from the Greek (), "(sun)Rise", or (), "(land) of the sunrise" or, more simply, the "East,"http://www.perseus. History Geography Background Eastern Anatolia Anatolian Plateau Ecoregions of Anatolia The given names Anatoly and Anatole References See also Wikipedia: Apple Inc. , , ) History 1976 to 1980: The early years 1981 to 1989: Lisa and Macintosh 1989 to 1991: The Golden Age 1994 to 1997: Attempts at reinvention 1998 to 2005: New beginnings 2005 to present: The Intel partnership Current products Hardware Environmental issues Software Corporate affairs Mission Statement Headquarters CEOs Current board of directors Current executives Advertising Logos Slogans Litigation Stock option backdating investigation Culture Apple Fellows Users Criticism References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain in Gaelic) is one of the 32 unitary council areas in Scotland. History Aberdeenshire council Notable features Hydrology and climate Notable residents References External links Wikipedia: Aztlan Underground Aztlan Underground is a fusion band from Los Angeles. Since the early 1990s, Aztlan Underground has played Rapcore. Discography Decolonize Sub-Verses See also External links Official sites Related sites Wikipedia: Anschluss The Until the German spelling reform of 1996, Situation before the Anschluss The Anschluss of 1938 Hitler's first moves Schuschnigg announces a referendum German troops march into Austria Reactions and consequences of the Anschluss Legacy of the 1938 Anschluss The Anschluss: annexation or union? The appeal of Nazism to Austrians The Second Republic The Moscow Declaration Austrian identity and the "victim theory" Political events Literature The Historical Commission and outstanding legal issues Austrian political and military leaders in Nazi Germany See also Axis occupations Japanese occupations Nazi Germany occupations Soviet occupations References Additional Reading Books Electronic articles and journals External links Wikipedia: American Civil War The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war between the United States of America (the "Union") and the Southern slave states of the newly-formed Confederate States of America under Jefferson Davis. The Union included all of the free states and the five slaveholding border states and was led by Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party. Causes of the war Slavery Secession begins Secession of South Carolina Secession winter The Confederacy The Union states Border states Overview The war begins Anaconda Plan and blockade, 1861 Eastern Theater 1861–1863 Western Theater 1861–1863 Trans-Mississippi Theater 1861–1865 End of the war 1864–1865 Slavery during the war Threat of international intervention Aftermath Reconstruction Results See also Cinema and television Films about the war Documentaries about the war Notes References External links Wikipedia: Andy Warhol | location = Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. Childhood and early career The 1960s Shooting The 1970s The 1980s Sexuality Religious beliefs Death Works Paintings Films Factory in New York Filmography Music Books and print Other media Producer and product Museums Films portraying Warhol Notes References See also External links Listening Wikipedia: AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted link Background Conception Album title Lyrics Critical Reception Legacy Track listing Samples Chart Positions Personnel References Wikipedia: Afrika Bambaataa | Died = History Birth of the Zulu Nation Recognition Activism Selected Discography 12-inch Singles Albums Music sample External links References Wikipedia: Alp Arslan Alp Arslan (1029 – December 15, 1072) was the second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponym of the dynasty. He assumed the name of Muhammad bin Da'ud Chaghri when he embraced Islam, and for his military prowess, personal valour, and fighting skills he obtained the surname Alp Arslan, which means "a valiant lion" in Turkish. Career Byzantine struggle State organization Death Legacy References Wikipedia: American Film Institute The American Film Institute (AFI) is an independent non-profit organization created by the National Endowment for the Arts, which was established in 1967 when President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act. Awards Ceremonies See also References Wikipedia: Auteur theory In film criticism, the 1950s-era auteur theory holds that a director's films reflect that director's personal creative vision, as if he or she were the primary "auteur" (the French word for "author"). In some cases, film producers are considered to have a similar "auteur" role for films that they have produced. History Origin Truffaut's development Impact Criticism External links Wikipedia: Akira Kurosawa | location = Ota, Tokyo, Japan Early life Early career Directorial approach Influences His influence Seven Samurai Western Film Indian movies Novels Rashomon Yojimbo The Hidden Fortress Collaboration Later films Personal life Awards Filmography Footnotes See also Further reading External links Wikipedia: Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in northern East Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River that reached its greatest extent in the second millennium BC during the New Kingdom. It stretched from southern Syria in the north to as far south as Jebel Barkal, located at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in modern-day Sudan. History Predynastic period Early dynastic period Old Kingdom First Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate Period and the Hyksos New Kingdom Third Intermediate Period Late Period Ptolemaic dynasty Roman domination Government and economy Administration and commerce Legal system Agriculture Natural resources Language Writing Literature Culture Architecture Art Religious beliefs Burial customs Leisure and games Foreign relations Trade Military Medicine Mathematics See also Notes and References References Bibliography Pharaonic Egypt Ptolemaic Egypt Roman Egypt External links Wikipedia: Analog Brothers Analog Brothers is an experimental rap crew featuring Ice Oscillator also known as Ice T (keyboards, drums, vocals), Keith Korg also known as Kool Keith (bass, strings, vocals), Mark Moog also known as Marc Live (drums, violyns and vocals), Silver Synth also known as Black Silver (synthesizer, lazar bell and vocals), and Rex Roland also known as Pimp Rex (keyboards, vocals, production). Their CD Pimp To Eat featured guest appearances by various members of Rhyme Syndicate, Odd Oberheim, Jacky Jasper (who appears as Jacky Jasper on the song "We Sleep Days" and H-Bomb on "War"), D. Discography External links Wikipedia: Motor neurone disease | Forms Terminology Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Prognosis Pathology Causes Pathophysiology Emotional lability / pseudobulbar affect Extra-motor change in MND Epidemiology Treatment Research efforts Etymology History and prominent patients See also References External links Wikipedia: Abjad Abjad is a term suggested by Peter T. Daniels Daniels, Peter T. Etymology Origins Connections with numbers Impure abjads Addition of vowels Abjad principles Related concepts Notes References See also External links Wikipedia: Abugida An abugida is a segmental writing system in which each letter (basic character) represents a consonant accompanied by a specific vowel; other vowels are indicated by modification of the consonant sign, either by means of diacritics or through a change in the form of the consonant. In some abugidas, the absence of a vowel is indicated overtly. Description Examples Special features Evolution Other types of writing systems Partial list of abugidas True abugidas Abugida-like scripts External links Wikipedia: ABBA ABBA was a Swedish pop/dance group active from 1972 until 1982. The quartet was formed through the friendship of Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus and their respective girlfriends Anni-Frid Lyngstad and Agnetha Fältskog, and together they topped charts worldwide from the mid-1970s to the early 1980s. 1969–1971: the formative years First performance as foursome - and first 'group name': "Festfolk" 1971–1973: From "Festfolk" to "Björn, Benny, Agnetha & Anni-Frid" to "ABBA" B&B Success in Japan 1972: "People Need Love": the first 'real' ABBA song Anni-Frid and Agnetha's first take at ABBA harmonies "Ring Ring" The ABBA name: October 1973 1974: "Waterloo" and Eurovision victory 1974 Tour 1975: "SOS", "Mamma Mia" and the breakthrough in Australia 1976: Greatest Hits, "Fernando", Arrival, "Knowing Me Knowing You", "Money Money Money" and "Dancing Queen" 1977: Europe and Australian tour, The Movie and The Album 1978: Polar Music Studio opens, US visit and "Summer Night City" 1979: Agnetha and Björn's divorce, Voulez-Vous and the US/Europe tour 1980: Japan tour and Super Trouper 1981: Anni-Frid and Benny's divorce, The Visitors, "One Of Us" and "When All Is Said And Done" 1982: The last recording sessions, future plans and breaking up After ABBA/Last performances/Reunions Benny and Björn after ABBA Frida and Agnetha after ABBA Revival: "Abbacadabra" (1983) / 'ABBA Gold'(1992) and 'Mamma Mia!' (1999) Trivia Discography Legacy Influence Notable tribute albums Fashion and videos Awards and recognition Bibliography Notes See also ABBA-related Lists Other External links Wikipedia: Allegiance an Allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed by a subject or a citizen to his/her state or sovereign. Origin of the word Usage United Kingdom United States Oath of allegiance See also References Wikipedia: Absolute majority An absolute majority (or, in American English, a supermajority voting requirement) is a voting system which usually requires that more than half of all the members of a group (including those absent and those present but not voting) must vote in favour of a proposition in order for it to be passed. In practical terms, it may mean that abstention from voting could be equivalent to a no vote. All articles lacking sources Articles lacking sources from October 2007 Elections Parliamentary procedure Voting theory Wikipedia: Afrika Islam Afrika Islam, born Charles Glenn, and known also as the Son of Bambaataa, is a hip-hop producer. He left New York for Los Angeles and went on to co-produce most of Ice T's early albums, namely Rhyme Pays and Power (Ice T album); the latter is deemed to be Ice's finest effort by some aficionados. Hip hop record producers Music biography stubs Wikipedia: Adventure International Adventure International was a video game publishing company that existed from 1978 until 1985, started by Scott and Alexis Adams. Their games were notable for being the first implementation of the adventure genre to run on a microcomputer system. History The games Saigon: The Final Days External links Wikipedia: Altenberg Altenberg may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Arthur C. Clarke | birth_place = Minehead, Somerset, England Biography Knighthood and false accusation Themes, style, and influences Adapted screenplays 2001: A Space Odyssey 2010 Essays and short stories Concept of the geostationary communications satellite Awards, honours and other recognition Partial bibliography Novels Omnibus editions Short story collections Non-fiction In popular culture Quotes See also Cited references External links Wikipedia: Apple Newton The Apple Newton, or simply Newton, is an early line of personal digital assistants developed and marketed by Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) from 1993 to 1998. The Newton in development Product Details Application software Notes Names Dates Screen and input Handwriting recognition User interface Operating system and programming environment Data storage Package installation, capacity planning, and disaster recovery Hardware connectivity Power options Later efforts and improvements Cases Market reception Newton technology after cancellation Newton Emulation Newton models Other uses Appearances in popular culture See also References Bibliography External links Additional Resources & Information Newton Technical Documents for Programmers Reviews Wikipedia: A. E. van Vogt Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century "Golden Age" of the genre. Science Fiction's Golden Age Post-war philosophy Recognition Critical praise Criticism Bibliography Novels Collections Non-fiction References External links Wikipedia: April Fools' Day RFC Almost every April Fools' Day (1 April) since 1989, the Internet Engineering Task Force has published one or more humorous RFC documents, following in the path blazed by the June 1973 RFC 527 entitled ARPAWOCKY. The following list also includes humorous RFCs published on other dates. List of April 1st RFCs Other humorous RFCs Non-RFC IETF humor Source External links Wikipedia: Anna Kournikova | residence = Miami Beach, Florida, United States Tennis career Media publicity Grand Slam doubles finals (3) Wins (2) Runner-up (1) Grand Slam mixed doubles finals (2) Wins (0) Runner-ups (2) WTA Tour titles (16) Doubles (16) Finalist (18) Singles (4) Doubles (12) Mixed doubles (2) Singles performance timeline Books Notes External links Wikipedia: Alfons Maria Jakob Alfons Maria Jakob (born July 2, 1884, Aschaffenburg/Bavaria; died October 17, 1931, Hamburg) was a German neurologist with important contributions on neuropathology. Associated eponym Bibliography Wikipedia: Atheism Atheism, as a philosophical view, is the position that either affirms the nonexistence of gods or rejects theism. "... Etymology 2006 | publisher Definitions and distinctions Range Implicit vs. explicit Strong vs. weak Rationale Practical atheism Theoretical atheism Epistemological arguments Metaphysical arguments Psychological, sociological and economical arguments Logical and evidential arguments Anthropocentric arguments History Early Indic religion Classical antiquity Early Middle Ages to the Renaissance Early Modern Period The 20th century Demographics Atheism, religion and morality See also Further reading Notes and references External links Wikipedia: Agnosticism Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning "without", and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning "knowledge") is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to the nature of subjective experience. Etymology Qualifying agnosticism Philosophical opinions Thomas Henry Huxley Stephen Colbert Robert G. Ingersoll Bertrand Russell Notes References See also External links Wikipedia: Argon Argon () is a chemical element designated by the symbol Ar. Argon has atomic number 18 and is the third element in group 18 of the periodic table (noble gases). Characteristics History Applications Occurrence Compounds Isotopes Potential hazards References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Arsenic |- Notable characteristics Applications History Occurrence Toxicity Arsenic in drinking water Compounds Isotopes Notes References See also External links Wikipedia: Antimony Antimony ( (US), (UK)) is a chemical element with the symbol Sb (, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. Properties Applications Etymology History Sources Precautions Chemistry See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Actinium Actinium () is a chemical element with the symbol Ac and atomic number 89. Notable characteristics Applications History Occurrence Isotopes Precautions References External links Wikipedia: Americium Americium () is a synthetic element that has the symbol Am and atomic number 95. A radioactive metallic element, americium is an actinide that was obtained in 1944 by bombarding plutonium with neutrons and was the fourth transuranic element to be discovered. Properties Applications History Chemistry References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Astatine Astatine () is a chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. This radioactive element occurs naturally from uranium-235 and uranium-238 decay. Notable characteristics History Occurrence Compounds Isotopes References External links Wikipedia: Atom |- History Components Subatomic particles Nucleus Electron cloud Properties Mass Size Radioactive decay Magnetic moment Energy levels Valence Identification Applications Origin and current state Nucleosynthesis Earth Rare forms See also References General references External links Wikipedia: Arable land In geography, arable land (from Latin arare, to plough) is an agricultural term, meaning land that can be used for growing crops. Non-arable land See also References External links Wikipedia: Aluminium Aluminium (, ) or aluminum (, see spelling below) is a silvery white and ductile member of the poor metal group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al; its atomic number is 13. History Etymology Nomenclature history Present-day spelling Isotopes Properties Production and refinement Chemistry Oxidation state one Oxidation state two Oxidation state three Clusters Applications General use Aluminium compounds Aluminium alloys in structural applications Household wiring Precautions Aluminium and plants (phytoremediation) See also References External links Wikipedia: Advanced Chemistry Heidelberg, Germany Discography External links Wikipedia: Abdication Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio, disowning, renouncing, from ab, away from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one) is the act of renouncing and resigning from a formal office, especially from the supreme office of state. In Roman law the term was also applied to the disowning of a family member, as the disinheriting of a son. Abdications in Classical Antiquity The British Crown Modern abdications List Notes See also References Wikipedia: Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. There is no single "Anglican Church" with universal juridical authority, since each national or regional church has full autonomy. What holds the Communion together? Ecclesiology, polity, and ethos The Chicago Lambeth Quadrilateral Instruments of Communion Provinces of the Anglican Communion History Ecumenical relations Apostolic Succession Controversies References Further Reading See also External links Wikipedia: Arne Kaijser Arne Kaijser (born 1950) is a professor of History of Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, and the head of the university's department of History of science and technology. External links Wikipedia: Archipelago An archipelago is a chain or cluster of islands. The word archipelago literally means "chief sea", from Greek arkhon (arkhi-) ("leader") and pelagos ("sea"). See also Wikipedia: Arthur Conan Doyle | birth_place = Edinburgh, Scotland Life Bibliography Holmes books Challenger stories Historical novels Other works See also Notes and references External links Wikipedia: Author An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and as "one who sets forth written statements" in the Oxford English Dictionary (1). The first entry suggests that authorship determines responsibility for what is created. Author of a written work Legal significance Literary significance Relationship between author and publisher See also References External links Wikipedia: Andrey Markov N.S. Biography See also References External links Wikipedia: Alumnus An alumnus (pl. alumni) according to the American Heritage Dictionary is "a male graduate or former student of a school, college, or university. Origin Usage Related terms Footnotes See also External links Wikipedia: Angst Angst or anguish is a Germanic word for fear or anxiety. It is used in English to describe an intense feeling of emotional strife. "Teenage angst" and popular music See also Wikipedia: Anxiety Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as fear, apprehension, or worry. Anxiety disorders Diagnosis GAD-2 GAD-7 Theories Two factor theory of anxiety Types of anxiety Existential anxiety Stranger anxiety Anxiety in palliative care Natural Treatments See also References Sources Wikipedia: A. A. Milne | birth_place = Hampstead, London, England Biography Literary career Works Novels Non-Fiction Selections of Newspaper Articles and Introductions to Books by Others Story Collections for Children Poetry Plays Books on Pooh and Milne Films References External links Wikipedia: Alumni Athletic Club Alumni Athletic Club, usually just Alumni, is a rugby union and former football (soccer) sports club from the Belgrano district of Buenos Aires in Argentina. The club was founded in 1891, with the name Buenos Aires English High School. Football Statistics External links See also Wikipedia: Addiction An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individual's health, mental state or social life. The term is often reserved for drug addictions but it is sometimes applied to other compulsions, such as problem gambling, and compulsive overeating. Terminology and usage Varied forms of addiction Physical dependency Psychological dependency Addiction and drug control legislation Methods of care Diverse explanations Neurobiological basis Criticism Casual addiction See also Notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: Axiom An axiom is a sentence or proposition that is not proved or demonstrated and is considered as self-evident or as an initial necessary consensus for a theory building or acceptation. Therefore, it is taken for granted as true, and serves as a starting point for deducing and inferencing other (theory dependent) truths. Etymology Historical development Early Greeks Modern development Mathematical logic Logical axioms Examples Propositional logic Non-logical axioms Arithmetic Euclidean geometry Real analysis Role in mathematical logic=== Deductive systems and completeness Further discussion References Notes See also External links Wikipedia: Alpha (letter) Alpha (Greek ), (uppercase Α, lowercase α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 1. Common notational uses Linguistic correlates Notes Wikipedia: Alvin Toffler Alvin Toffler (born October 3, 1928) is an American writer and futurist, known for his works discussing the digital revolution, communications revolution, corporate revolution and technological singularity. A former associate editor of Fortune magazine, his early work focused on technology and its impact (through effects like information overload). His ideas Books List of political leaders tutored by Alvin and Heidi Toffler See also References External links Wikipedia: The Amazing Spider-Man The Amazing Spider-Man is the title of a comic book published by Marvel Comics, a television program and a daily newspaper comic strip featuring the adventures of the superhero Spider-Man. Comic book The 1960s The 1970s The 1980s The 1990s The reboot, and beyond Black Issue Civil War Back In Black One More Day Brand New Day Television program Radio Series Video and computer games Trivia External links Wikipedia: Archie Archie is a given name of English origin. It is a popular diminutive of Archibald, meaning true, bold, and valuable. Disambiguation Wikipedia: AM AM or Am may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Automated Alice Automated Alice is a fantastical book by British author Jeff Noon, first published in 1996. The book follows Alice's travels to a future Manchester city populated by Newmonians, Civil Serpents and a vanishing cat. Plot summary Characters Wikipedia: Antigua and Barbuda |conventional_long_name = History Politics Military Parishes and dependencies Geography Economy Demographics Language Culture Media Sport Education Foreign relations See also References External links Wikipedia: A Man for All Seasons A Man for All Seasons is a play by Robert Bolt. An early form of the play had been written for BBC Radio in 1954, but after Bolt's success with The Flowering Cherry, he reworked it for the stage. Themes Stage productions Film and TV movies 1966 film 1988 film Radio productions See also External links Wikipedia: Azincourt |region= Nord-Pas-de-Calais Images relating to the battle See also Wikipedia: Albert Speer Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer (; March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981), was an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called "the first architect of the Third Reich". Early years First architect of the Reich Minister of Armaments After the war Nuremberg trials Imprisonment Release and later life See also References Footnotes Resources Works Biographies Movies Novelisations/Plays External links Wikipedia: Alliaceae Alliaceae is a family of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. They are monocots, part of order Asparagales. Genera References External links Wikipedia: Asteraceae The family Asteraceae or Compositae, known as the aster, daisy or sunflower family, is the second largest family of flowering plants, after Orchidaceae, in terms of number of species. Taxonomy Description Leaves and stems Flowers Fruits and seeds Metabolites Ecology Evolution Uses Genera Image gallery Footnotes References External links Wikipedia: Apiaceae The Apiaceae or Umbelliferae (both names are allowed by the ICBN) is a family of usually aromatic plants with hollow stems. It includes cumin, parsley, carrot, dill, caraway, fennel, and other relatives. See also External links Wikipedia: Axon An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection Anatomy Physiology Types Motor Sensory Growth and development History Concussion See also References External links Wikipedia: Aramaic alphabet The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad, a consonantal alphabet, used for writing Aramaic. It developed out of the Phoenician alphabet, and became distinctive from it by the eighth century BCE. History Legacy Imperial Aramaic alphabet Matres lectionis References External links Wikipedia: AWK (disambiguation) AWK may refer to See also Wikipedia: As We May Think As We May Think is an essay by Vannevar Bush, first published in The Atlantic Monthly in July 1945. Bush argued that as humans turned from war, scientific efforts should shift from increasing physical abilities to making all previous collected human knowledge more accessible. See also External links Online versions Wikipedia: American shot "American shot" is a translation of a phrase from French film criticism, "plan américain" and refers to a medium-long ("knee") film shot of a group of characters, who are arranged so that all are visible to the camera. The usual arrangement is for the actors to stand in an irregular line from one side of the screen to the other, with the actors at the end coming forward a little and standing more in profile than the others. All articles lacking sources Articles lacking sources from June 2007 Film techniques Wikipedia: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis | Presentation Treatment External links Wikipedia: Ataxia | Types of ataxia Cerebellar ataxia Sensory ataxia Vestibular ataxia Causes of ataxia Focal lesions Exogenous substances Vitamin B12 deficiency Causes of isolated sensory ataxia Non-hereditary cerebellar degeneration Hereditary ataxias Treatment External links Wikipedia: Abdul Alhazred Abdul Alhazred is a fictional character created by American horror writer H. P. Name Biography H. P. Lovecraft August Derleth References Notes Wikipedia: Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (December 10, 1815 – November 27, 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, is mainly known for having written a description of Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. Biography Interaction with Charles Babbage Death References within computer science Popular cultural references Publications See also References External links Wikipedia: Ambient calculus In computer science, the ambient calculus is a process calculus devised by Luca Cardelli Informal description Ambients Operations See also External links References Wikipedia: August Derleth August William Derleth (February 24 1909 – July 4 1971) was an American writer and anthologist. Though best remembered as H. Life Cthulhu Mythos Other writing Bibliography Short fiction As Stephen Grendon With H. P. Lovecraft With Marc R. Schorer Other collaborations Novels Biography History Religious History Anthologies Collections Poems Essays/articles References External links See also Wikipedia: Alps The Alps (; ; ; ; ) is the name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east, through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west. The word "Alps" was taken via French from Latin Alpes (meaning "the Alps"), which may be influenced by the Latin words albus (white) or altus (high) or more likely a Latin rendering of a Celtic or Ligurian original. Geography Subdivision Main chain Principal passes Climate Geology Political and cultural history Exploration Flora Fauna See also External links References Wikipedia: Albert Camus Villeblevin, France Early years Literary career Summary of Absurdism Camus's ideas on the Absurd Opposition to totalitarianism Selected bibliography Novels Short stories Non-fiction Essays Plays Collections Cultural influences Film Music Further reading References External links Wikipedia: Agatha Christie | birth_place = Torquay, Devon, England Biography Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple In popular culture List of works Novels Collections of Short Stories Novels written as Mary Westmacott Plays Radio Plays Television Plays Nonfiction Other published works Co-authored works Other works based on Christie's books and plays Plays adapted into novels by Charles Osborne Plays adapted by other authors Movie Adaptations Television Adaptations Comics Video games Unpublished material Animation See also References Further reading Articles Books External links Wikipedia: The Plague The Plague (Fr. La Peste) is a novel by Albert Camus, published in 1947, that tells the story of medical workers finding solidarity in their labour as the Algerian city of Oran is swept by a plague. Plot Summary Part one Part two Characters in "The Plague" Allusions/references to other works Wikipedia: Applied ethics Applied ethics is a discipline of philosophy that attempts to apply 'theoretical' ethics, such as utilitarianism, social contract theory, and deontology, to real world dilemmas. Topics falling within the discipline include medical ethics, legal ethics, environmental ethics, computer ethics, corporate social responsibility, or business ethics. Modern approach List of subfields of applied ethics See also Bibliography Anthologies Journals External links Wikipedia: Adolf Eichmann | birth_place = Solingen, Germany Early life Work with the Nazi Party and the SS World War II Post World War II CIA inaction Capture International dispute over capture Trial Execution Eichmann analysis See also Awards and Decorations Notes References External links Wikipedia: Absolute value In mathematics, the absolute value (or modulusJean-Robert Argand, is credited with introducing the term "modulus" in 1806, see: Nahin, O'Connor and Robertson, and functions.Wolfram. Real numbers Complex numbers Absolute value functions Ordered rings Distance Derivatives Fields Vector spaces Algorithms Notes References See also Wikipedia: Arches National Park Arches National Park preserves over 2,000 natural sandstone arches, including the world-famous Delicate Arch, in addition to a variety of unique geological resources and formations. Features Geology History Recreational activities Publicity Biology Photo Gallery References External links Wikipedia: Analog signal An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. It differs from a digital signal in that small fluctuations in the signal are meaningful. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context, however mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also convey analog signals. Disadvantage Modulation See also Wikipedia: Arecales Arecales is an order of flowering plants. The order has been widely recognised only for the past few decades; until then, the accepted name for the order including these plants was Principes. External links Wikipedia: And Then There Were None And Then There Were None is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie and first published in the UK by the Collins Crime Club in November 1939 under the title of Ten Little Niggers and in US by Dodd, Mead and Company in 1940 under the title of And Then There Were None. The UK edition retailed at seven shillings and sixpence (7/6d). Plot introduction Characters Plot summary Epilogue Postscript Literary significance and reception Film, TV and theatrical adaptations Publication history Notable editions of the novel Notable editions of the play based on the novel Video game adaptations External links References Wikipedia: Hercule Poirot Hercule Poirot (pronounced in English ) is a fictional Belgian detective created by Agatha Christie. Along with Miss Marple, Poirot is one of Christie's most famous and long-lived characters: he appeared in 33 novels and 54 short stories. Overview Influences Popularity Appearance and personal attributes Methods Recurring characters Arthur Hastings Ariadne Oliver Miss Lemon Inspector Japp Georges Hercule Poirot's life Family and childhood Poirot’s police years Career as a private detective Retirement Post World War Death Major novels Portrayals Film Austin Trevor Albert Finney Peter Ustinov Other Television David Suchet Animated Radio Parodies and references See also References External links Wikipedia: Miss Marple Jane Marple, usually known as Miss Marple, is a fictional character appearing in twelve of Agatha Christie's crime novels. Miss Marple is an elderly spinster who acts as an amateur detective, and lives in the village of St. Character Novels featuring Miss Marple Miss Marple Short Story Collections Books about Miss Marple Quotation Movies Margaret Rutherford Angela Lansbury Helen Hayes Television and radio adaptations Television Radio External links Wikipedia: April April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, and one of four months with the length of 30 days. April was originally the second month of the Roman calendar, before January and February were added by King Numa Pompilius about 700 BC. See also Wikipedia: August August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. August begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Leo and ends in the sign of Virgo. Other names Events in August Monthlong events in August Weeklong events in August Daily events in August Corresponding months Further reading Wikipedia: Aaron Aaron (), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 BC), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. He was the elder son of Amram and Jochebed of the tribe of Levi;Moses], the other son, being three years younger[[Exodus 7:7, and Miriam, their sister, several years older. Etymology His function Becomes priest of Israel Priesthood Rebellion of Korah Death Typical signification in rabbinical literature Death of Aaron in rabbinic literature Moses and Aaron compared in rabbinic literature Genetics Descendants Aaron in Christianity Aaron in LDS Aaron in Islam References Resources See also External links Wikipedia: April 4 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical Feast days External links Wikipedia: April 6 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical Feast days External links Wikipedia: April 12 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical feast days External links Wikipedia: April 15 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical feast days External links Wikipedia: April 30 == Events == Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical Feast days External links Wikipedia: August 22 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 27 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Alcohol In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. The general formula for a simple acyclic alcohol is CnH2n+1OH. Simple alcohols Nomenclature Systematic names Etymology Physical and chemical properties Applications Production Endogenous Deprotonation Nucleophilic substitution Dehydration Esterification Oxidation Toxicity See also References Wikipedia: Achill Island Achill Island () in County Mayo is the largest island of Ireland, and is situated off the west coast. It has a population of 2,700. History Sights Economy Transport Population Architecture Famous people Literature See also External links References Wikipedia: Allen Ginsberg | birth_place = Newark, New Jersey Life Early life and family New York Beats San Francisco Renaissance Biographical references in "Howl" To Paris and the "Beat Hotel" Continuing literary activity His Buddhism and Hinduism Death and fame Controversial political activism Role in anti-Vietnam War protests Relationship to Communism Gay rights and free speech Association with NAMBLA Demystification of drugs Career Inspiration from friends Inspiration from mentors and idols Style and Technique Popular culture See also Notes and references Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Algebraically closed field In mathematics, a field F is said to be algebraically closed if every polynomial in one variable of degree at least 1, with coefficients in F, has a zero (root) in F. Examples Equivalent properties Other properties Notes References Wikipedia: August 6 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Anatoly Karpov |datebirth = Early life Candidate The Big Match that never was Rival FIDE champion again Towards retirement? Notes Books Further reading External links Wikipedia: Aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. It is also applied to two characteristic dimensions of a three-dimensional shape, especially for the longest and shortest 'axes' or for symmetrical objects (e. See also Wikipedia: Auto racing Automobile racing (also known as auto racing, motor racing, or car racing) is a sport involving racing automobiles. Auto racing began in 1895, and is now one of the world's most popular sports. History The beginning of race cars City to city racing 1910-1950 Categories Single-seater racing Touring car racing Production car racing One-make racing Stock car racing Rallying Targa Racing (Targa Rally) Drag racing Sports car racing Off-road racing Kart racing Historical racing Other categories Use of flags Accidents Racing car setup See also References External links Sanctioning bodies Other Wikipedia: Anarcho-capitalism Anarcho-capitalism (a form of market anarchism or individualist anarchismAdams, Ian. 2002. Philosophy The nonaggression axiom Property Private property Common property The contractual society Law and order and the use of violence History and influences Classical liberalism Nineteenth century individualist anarchism in the United States The Austrian School Objectivism Historical precedents for anarcho-capitalism Medieval Iceland The American Old West Theoretical variance among anarcho-capitalists Anarcho-capitalism today Criticisms of anarcho-capitalism Another State would replace the first Anarcho-capitalism is not a legitimate form of anarchism Stability of anarcho-capitalist legal institutions Anarcho-capitalist literature Nonfiction Fiction See also Citations References Sources that consider anarcho-capitalism a form of anarchism As a form of individualist anarchism Sources claiming that individualist anarchism was reborn as anarcho-capitalism As a form of anarchism in general Sources that do not consider anarcho-capitalism to be a form of anarchism Further reading External links Anarcho-capitalist websites and articles Other Wikipedia: August 9 == Events == Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Aristophanes Aristophanes (, in English, ca. 456 BC – ca. Biography Works Surviving plays Non-surviving plays Undated non-surviving plays Aristophanes in fiction See also Further reading External links Wikipedia: Albert Schweitzer | birth_place = Kaisersberg, Alsace-Lorraine Education Theology Music Recordings Columbia recordings Philips records Philosophy Stance on racial relations Medicine Later life Selected bibliography Timeline References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Austrian School The Austrian School, also known as the “Vienna School” or the “Psychological School”, is a heterodox school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. As a result Austrians hold that the only valid economic theory is logically derived from basic principles of human action. History Analytical framework Contributions Criticism Economists affiliated with the Austrian School Other related economists Critics Seminal works References See also External links Critical Wikipedia: Abscess | Manifestations Treatment Antibiotics Magnesium Sulphate Paste Incision and drainage Primary closure Recurrent infections Perianal abscess See also References External links Wikipedia: Abwehr The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. The term Abwehr (German for defence) was used as a concession to Allied demands that Germany's post-World War I intelligence activities be for "defensive" purposes only. The Abwehr before Canaris The Abwehr under Canaris Before the War 1938 reorganisation Ast / Abwehrstelle Abwehr operational structure in neutral countries Canaris and Die Schwarze Kapelle The Abwehr During World War II The Frau Solf Tea Party and the End of the Abwehr Chiefs of the Abwehr See also Footnotes Further Information Wikipedia: Ancient Pueblo Peoples Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. The cultural group is often referred to as the Anasazi. Geography of the Ancient Pueblo Cultural characteristics Origins Migration from the homeland Warfare and cannibalism Cultural distinctions Anasazi as a cultural label Limitations on cultural conventions External links References See also Wikipedia: Aalborg Municipality Aalborg Municipality is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Region Nordjylland on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark.Bridgwater, W. Surroundings Municipal reform of 2007 External links References Wikipedia: Aarhus Aarhus (: ) also commonly known by its contemporary Danish spelling Århus, is the second largest city and the principal port of Denmark, situated on the peninsula of Jutland. Aarhus is the seat of the council of Aarhus municipality and claims the unofficial title "Capital of Jutland". Demographics Geography & Infrastructure History Name Viking era 17th-18th centuries 19th century Main sights Culture Sports Education Politics Suburbs Industry and business Famous people See metropolitan areas of Denmark References External links Official websites Educational institutions Wikipedia: Northern cavefish | regnum = Animalia References Wikipedia: Abandonment The term abandonment has a multitude of uses, legal and extra-legal. This "signpost article" provides a guide to the various legal and quasi-legal uses of the word and includes links to articles that deal with each of the distinct concepts at greater length. See also Notes Wikipedia: Abatement Abatement may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Ale Ale is a type of beer brewed from barley malt with a top-fermenting brewers yeast. This yeast ferments the beer quickly, giving it a sweet, full body and a fruity (and sometimes butter-like) taste. History of ale Modern ale Varieties of ale Pale ale Brown ale Dark ale Light ale Irish red ale Belgian ales German ales Scotch ales Old ales Cream ales References See also External links Wikipedia: Amateur Most commonly an amateur is understood to be someone who does something without pay or formal training. Conversely, a professional is someone who has received training in a particular area and who also makes a living from it. See also Wikipedia: Ambrose Bierce | birth_place = Meigs County, Ohio, USA Early life and military career Marriage and children Journalism Railroad Refinancing Bill McKinley accusation Literary works Disappearance Legacy and influence Bibliography Books Short stories See also References Sources External links Wikipedia: Alexis Carrel Alexis Carrel (June 28, 1873 - November 5, 1944) was a French surgeon, biologist and eugenicist, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912. He was also a member of Jacques Doriot's Parti Populaire Français (PPF), the most collaborationist party during Vichy France. Biography Contributions to science Suturing blood vessels Organ transplants Cellular Senescence Honors "Man, The Unknown" (1935) Alexis Carrel under Vichy 1990s-2000s debates concerning Carrel A Source of Inspiration for Islamists References See also External links Sources Wikipedia: Anthony Eden | birth_place = West Auckland, County Durham, United Kingdom Early career Foreign Secretary and resignation (1935-38) Second World War (1939-45) Post-war Opposition (1945-51) Return to government (1951-55) Prime Minister (1955-57) Suez (1956) Suez in retrospect Health Speculation in later years Rejected plan for union between Britain and France Retirement (1957-77) Eden in Popular Culture The Eden Government The Grey-Eden connection References External links Wikipedia: All Souls' Day In Western Christianity, All Souls' Day commemorates the faithful departed. This day is observed in the Roman Catholic Church, churches of the Anglican Communion, Old Catholic Churches, and to some extent among Protestants. Christian origin Eastern Orthodox Church Protestantism Pagan roots See also External links Wikipedia: Anatole France Anatole France (16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924), born François-Anatole Thibault, was a French author. He was born in Paris, and died in Tours, Indre-et-Loire. Biography Career Works, partial list Famous sayings External links Wikipedia: André Gide | birth_place = Paris Early life The middle years Africa Russia The 1940s Partial list of works References See also External links Wikipedia: Algorithms for calculating variance Algorithms for calculating variance play a minor role in statistical computing. A key problem in the design of good algorithms for this problem is that formulas for the variance may involve sums of squares, which can lead to numerical instability as well as to arithmetic overflow when dealing with large values. Algorithm I Algorithm II Algorithm II (compensated) Algorithm III Algorithm IV Example References External links Wikipedia: Almond The Almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch. Description Origin and history Production Diseases Pollination Culinary uses Almond oil Almond syrup Possible health benefits Etymology See also References External links Wikipedia: Economy of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda's economy is service-based, with tourism and government services representing the key sources of employment and income. Tourism accounts directly or indirectly for more than half of GDP and is also the principal earner of foreign exchange in Antigua and Barbuda. Tourism Economic History Statistics References Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda maintains diplomatic relations with the United States, Canada the United Kingdom, and the People's Republic of China, as well as with many Latin American countries and neighboring Eastern Caribbean states. It is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, and the Eastern Caribbean's Regional Security System (RSS). See also References Wikipedia: Antisemitism Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judophobia) is hostility, prejudice, toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. This hostility may be manifested in discrimination against individual Jews, or in extreme cases violent attacks on entire communities. Forms Etymology and usage Definitions Emotionality History Ancient world Accusations of deicide Persecution of Jews in the Middle Ages Continuing accusations of deicide Seventeenth century Eighteenth century Nineteenth century Twentieth century Religious antisemitism Christian world New Testament and anti-Judaism Early Christianity Europe (Middle Ages) 19th and 20th century (Catholicism) Passion plays Muslim world Context Jews in Islamic texts Differences with Christianity Status of Jews under Muslim rule Pre-modern times Modern period 19th century 20th century Racial antisemitism New antisemitism Bans on kosher slaughter 21st century See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Geography of American Samoa |- See also Wikipedia: Demographics of American Samoa Population: CIA World Factbook cleanup Economy of American Samoa Geography of American Samoa Wikipedia: Politics of American Samoa Politics of American Samoa takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic dependency, whereby the Governor is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. American Samoa is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the United States, administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior. Executive branch Legislative branch Political parties and elections Judicial branch International organization participation Wikipedia: Economy of American Samoa This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Numbers See also Wikipedia: Communications in American Samoa This article is about communications systems in American Samoa. Telephone Radio Television Internet See also Wikipedia: Transport in American Samoa Railways: CIA World Factbook cleanup Transport in American Samoa Wikipedia: Geography of Australia The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts. Physical geography Geology Regions Hydrology Political geography Climate Land use Natural hazards Environment See also References Wikipedia: August 13 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Avicenna | Biography Early life Adulthood Later life Sciences Medicine Astronomy and Astrology Chemistry and Aromatherapy Earth sciences Neuroscience and Psychology Physics Avicennian philosophy Metaphysical doctrine Avicennian logic Natural philosophy Theology Thought experiment Other contributions Engineering Poetry Legacy Works List of Works See also Footnotes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: The Ashes | most successful = (31 titles) The Legend of The Ashes The Ashes Urn Series and matches The quest to "recover those ashes" English dominance till 1897 1894/95 Series 1902 Series Reviving the Ashes legend 1912 Triangular Series 1920s 1930 Series 1932/33 Series 1934 to 1947 1948 Series 1950 to 1980 1981 Series 1980s 1990s 2005 Series 2006–07 series Summary of results and statistics The Ashes today Match venues The Ashes outside cricket See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Anne Rice | death_date = Biography Early years Writing career Return to Catholicism Leaving New Orleans incident Adaptations Film Theatre Fan fiction Music inspired by Rice's novels Bibliography See also References External links Wikipedia: Analysis (disambiguation) Analysis means literally to break a complex problem down into smaller, more manageable "independent" parts for the purposes of examination — with the hope that solving these smaller parts will lead to a solution of the more complex problem as well. Although taken for granted as a method of advancing understanding today, this is a relatively recent and important invention of humankind; however, it should be noted that roughly parallel concepts within mathematics and logic go back beyond Aristotle. Chemistry Computer science Cryptography Economics Engineering Linguistics Literary criticism Mathematics Music Philosophy Psychotherapy Signal processing Statistics May also refer to See also Wikipedia: Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Early years Military career Early commands and Fort Sumter Brigade and division command in Virginia Gettysburg Washington Postbellum career Legacy and baseball References Notes External links Wikipedia: America's National Game America's National Game is a book by Albert Spalding, published in 1911 detailing the early history of the sport of baseball. Much of the story is told first-hand, since Spalding had been involved in the game, first as a player and later an administrator, since the 1850s. See also Wikipedia: Amplitude modulation Amplitude modulation (AM) is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent. Forms of amplitude modulation Example Modulation index Amplitude modulator designs Circuits Low level High level See also References Wikipedia: Augustin-Jean Fresnel Augustin-Jean Fresnel ( fray-NELL in English, ] in French) (May 10, 1788 – July 14, 1827), was a French physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally. Biography Researches See also External link and reference Wikipedia: Abbeville | Location Administration Prehistory History Sights See also References External links Wikipedia: Abbot The word abbot, meaning father, is a title given to the head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity and Buddhism. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not actually the head of a monastery. Origins Monastic history General information Modern practices Abbatial hierarchy Modern abbots not as superior Eastern Christian Protestant abbots Abbots in art and literature See also Sources and references External links Wikipedia: Ardipithecus Ardipithecus is a very early hominin genus (subfamily Homininae). Because it shares several traits with the African great apes (genus Pan and genus Gorilla), it is considered by some to be on the chimpanzee rather than human branch, but most consider it a proto-human because of a likeness in teeth with Australopithecus. Species Lifestyle See also External links Wikipedia: Assembly line An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create a finished product much faster than conventional methods. The best known form of the assembly line, the moving assembly line, was created by Henry Ford. History Sociological problems See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Adelaide | poprank = 5th History Geography Climate Urban layout Governance Demography Economy Education Culture Media Sport Infrastructure Health Transport Utilities Sister cities See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alan Garner Alan Garner OBE (born Congleton October 17, 1934) is an English writer whose work is firmly rooted in Cheshire. Biography Bibliography Novels Collections Short Stories Essays and Lectures Edited TV Drama Awards External links References Wikipedia: August 2 == Events == Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Atlantic (disambiguation) Atlantic generally refers to the Atlantic Ocean but may also refer to: See also Wikipedia: Algebraic number In mathematics, an algebraic number is a complex number that is a root of a non-zero polynomial with rational (or equivalently, integer) coefficients. Complex numbers that are not algebraic are said to be transcendental. Examples Properties The field of algebraic numbers Numbers defined by radicals Algebraic integers Special classes of algebraic number Footnotes References Wikipedia: Ankh-Morpork Ankh-Morpork is a fictional city-state which prominently features in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of fantasy novels. As cities go, it is on the far side of corrupt and polluted, and is subject to outbreaks of comedic violence and brou-ha-ha on a fairly regular basis. Geography The River Ankh History Politics City Leadership Current "important" city figures Institutions Education Law Enforcement Government revival Currency Notable locations Public holidays Real-world connections External links References Wikipedia: Automorphism In mathematics, an automorphism is an isomorphism from a mathematical object to itself. It is, in some sense, a symmetry of the object, and a way of mapping the object to itself while preserving all of its structure. Definition Automorphism group Examples Inner and outer automorphisms See also References External links Wikipedia: Accordion An accordion is a musical instrument of the handheld bellows-driven free reed aerophone family, sometimes referred to as a squeezebox. Physical description History Manufacturing process Musical genres Button accordions Hybrids Stradella bass system Common configurations Free bass systems Audio samples Related instruments Squeezeboxes Digital accordions Other free-reeds Famous accordionists Accordion organizations References External links Wikipedia: Artificial intelligence The modern definition of artificial intelligence (or AI) is "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximizes its chances of success. Perspectives on AI History of AI Philosophy of AI AI in fiction AI research Problems of AI Approaches to AI Cybernetics and brain simulation Traditional symbolic AI Sub-symbolic AI Intelligent agent paradigm Integrating the approaches Tools of AI research Search Logic Stochastic methods Economic models Classifiers and statistical learning methods Neural networks Social and emergent models Control theory Specialized languages Competitions and prizes Applications of artificial intelligence Business Toys and games List of applications See also Notes References Major AI textbooks Other sources Further reading External links Wikipedia: Afro Celt Sound System The Afro Celt Sound System is a musical group which fuses modern dance rhythms (trip-hop, techno, etc.) with Celtic and African influences. Band members Discography External links Wikipedia: Ancient philosophy This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Europe, the spread of Christianity through the Roman world marked the end of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy. Western philosophy Presocratic philosophers Classical Greek philosophers Hellenistic philosophy Hellenistic schools of thought Philosophers during Roman times Indian philosophy Vedic philosophy Classical Indian philosophy Old Iranian philosophy Chinese philosophy External links Wikipedia: Anaximander Anaximander (Ancient Greek: ) (c. 610 BC–c. Biography Theories Apeiron Cosmology Multiple worlds Meteorological phenomena Origin of humankind Other accomplishments Cartography Gnomon Prediction of an earthquake Interpretations Works See also Footnotes References Primary sources Secondary sources External links Wikipedia: APL APL is an abbreviation, acronym, or initialism that may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Architect An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing, modeling and overseeing of a building's construction. The word "architect" (Latin: architectus) derives from the Greek arkhitekton (arkhi, chief + tekton, builder")Online Etymology of the term "architect" . Architects in practice Design role Construction role Alternate practice and specializations Professional requirements Australia Canada Singapore United Kingdom United States Earnings Canada Earnings US Earning outlook UK Earnings Schools of Architecture Professional Organizations See also Further reading References External links Wikipedia: Abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin brevis "short") is a shortened form of a word or phrase. Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase. Types of abbreviations Syllabic abbreviation Use in various languages Syllabic abbreviations in names of organizations Style conventions in English Lower case letters Periods (full stops) and spaces Plural Forms Conventions followed by publications and newspapers In the United States In Britain Miscellaneous and general rules Measurement History Examples External links Wikipedia: Abstract algebra Abstract algebra is the subject area of mathematics that studies algebraic structures, such as groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, and algebras. Most authors nowadays simply write algebra instead of abstract algebra. History and examples Early group theory Modern algebra An example See also References and further reading External links Wikipedia: Aphrodite Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη; Latin: Venus) (; Ancient Greek: , Modern Greek: ) is the classical Greek goddess of love, lust, and beauty. She was also called Kypris and Cytherea after the two places, Cyprus and Cythera, which claimed her birth. Origins Worship Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos Ritual prostitution Birth, rising from the sea Adulthood Marriage with Hephaestus Aphrodite and Psyche Adonis The Judgement of Paris Pygmalion and Galatea Other stories Consorts and children Surnames and titles Aphrodite in popular culture See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: April 1 April 1 is most notable in the Western world for being April Fools' Day. Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical Feast days External links Wikipedia: Antisymmetric relation In mathematics, a binary relation R on a set X is antisymmetric if, for all a and b in X, if a is related to b and b is related to a, then a = b. Examples Properties containing antisymmetry See also Wikipedia: Aleister Crowley | birth_place = Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, England Early years University Bisexuality Name change The Golden Dawn 1904 and after Argenteum Astrum and Ordo Templi Orientis Years in America, 1914-1918 Abbey of Thelema After the Abbey Death Thelema Mountaineering Science, magick, and sexuality Writings Controversy Drugs Racism Sexism See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Afterlife The afterlife or life after death is a generic term for a continuation of existence after death, typically in a spiritual or ghostlike afterworld. Deceased persons are usually believed to go a specific region or plane of existence in this afterworld, often depending on the type of person they are and the life they lived. Types of views on the afterlife The afterlife in different metaphysical models Afterlife in modern science Afterlife in Ancient Egyptian Religion Afterlife in Zoroastrianism Afterlife in ancient Greek and Roman religion Afterlife in Norse religion Afterlife in Abrahamic religions Judaism Christianity The Early Church: 1st century Medieval Christianity The Protestant Reformation Swedenborg and the Enlightenment Afterlife in Latter-Day Saints (Mormonism) Christian fiction Salvation, faith, and merit from ancient to modern Christianity The dead as Angels in Heaven Universalists Jehovah's Witnesses The Modern Catholic Church Islam Afterlife as reincarnation Eastern Religions Hinduism Buddhism Sikhism Other believers in reincarnation See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Astrometry Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that relates to precise measurements and explanations of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies. Although once thought of as an esoteric field with little useful application for the future, the information obtained by astrometric measurements is now very important in contemporary research into the kinematics and physical origin of our Solar System and our Galaxy, the Milky Way. History Applications Statistics In fiction See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Athena In Greek mythology, Athena (Attic: , Athēnâ, or , Athḗnē; Doric: , Asána; Latin: Minerva) is the shrewd companion of heroes and the Goddess of heroic endeavour. Overview Mythology Birth of Athena The Olympian version Other origin tales Pallas Athena Athena Parthenos: Virgin Athena Erichthonius Medusa and Tiresias Lady of Athens Counselor Roman fable of Arachne Cult and attributes Athena Tritogeneia In classical art Name, etymology, and origin In post-classical culture See also Footnotes Ancient sources Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Amber Diceless Roleplaying Game The Amber Diceless Roleplaying Game is a role-playing game created and written by Erick Wujcik, set in the fictional universe created by author Roger Zelazny for his Chronicles of Amber. The game is unusual in that no dice are used in resolving conflicts or player actions; instead a simple diceless system of comparative ability, and narrative description of the action by the players and game referee, is used to determine how situations are resolved. History Setting System Attributes The Attribute Auction Psyche in Amber DRPG compared to the Chronicles Powers Artifacts, Personal shadows and Constructs Stuff Conflict resolution The 'Golden Rule' Community References External links Wikipedia: Alloy An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. The resulting metallic substance usually has different properties (sometimes substantially different) from those of its components. Introduction Classification Terminology See also Line notes Wikipedia: Articles of Faith Articles of faith are formal creeds, or lists of beliefs, sometimes numbered, and often beginning with "We believe...", which attempt to more or less define the fundamental theology of a given religion and/or church. Christianity Catholicism and Anglicanism Protestantism The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Islam Notes Wikipedia: Alternative history Alternative history may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Artistic revolution Throughout history, forms of art have gone through periodic abrupt changes called artistic revolutions. Movements have come to an end to be replaced by a new movement markedly different in striking ways. Artistic revolution and cultural/political revolutions Artistic revolution of style Wikipedia: Agrarianism Agrarianism is a social and political philosophy which stresses the viewpoint that the cultivation of plants, or farming leads to a fuller and happier life. The Philosophy of Agrarianism History of Agrarianism Relation to Similar Social Movements Famous Agrarians See also External links Wikipedia: Angle In geometry and trigonometry, an angle (in full, plane angle) is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. The magnitude of the angle is the "amount of rotation" that separates the two rays, and can be measured by considering the length of circular arc swept out when one ray is rotated about the vertex to coincide with the other (see "Measuring angles", below). History Units Positive and negative angles Approximations Types of angle A formal definition Using trigonometric functions Using rotations Angles between curves The dot product and generalisation Angles in Riemannian geometry Angles in geography and astronomy References Notes On-line resources See also External links Wikipedia: Asa Asa may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Acoustics Acoustics is the branch of physics concerned with the study of sound, ultrasound and infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician. Divisions of acoustics See also References External links Wikipedia: Atomic physics Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and Isolated atoms Electronic configuration History and developments Significant atomic physicists References External links Wikipedia: American Sign Language American Sign Language (ASL; less commonly Ameslan) is the dominant sign language of the Deaf community in the United States, in the English-speaking parts of Canada, and in parts of Mexico. Although the United Kingdom and the United States share English as a spoken and written language, British Sign Language (BSL) is quite different from ASL, and the two sign languages are not mutually intelligible. History of ASL Prior sign languages American School for the Deaf Growth and standardization Oralism vs. Manualism A living language Linguistics Iconicity Grammar Phonology Orientation, movement, and hold Handshape Fingerspelling Location Referent locus system Non-manual features Morphology Degree Reduplication Compounds Affixes Numeral incorporation and classifiers Frames Verbal aspect Verbal number Syntax Word order Topic and main clauses Subject pronoun tags Aspect, topics, and transitivity Negation Questions Relative clauses Deixis Pronouns Indexical verbs Time-sequenced ordering Writing systems Baby Sign Primate ASL usage See also References External links Wikipedia: Applet An applet is a software component that runs in the context of another program, for example a web browser. An applet usually performs a very narrow function that has no independent use. Attributes See also References Wikipedia: Alternate history Alternate history or alternative historyBrave New Words: The Oxford Dictionary of Science Fiction (Oxford University Press, 2007) notes the preferred usage of "Alternate History" as well as is primacy in coinage, "Alternate History" was coined in 1954 and "Alternative History" was first used in 1977, pp.4-5. History of alternate history fiction Antiquity 19th century Early 20th century and the era of the pulps Time travel as a means of creating historical divergences Cross-time stories Introducing the paratime patrol Development of more sophisticated framings Major writers explore alternate histories Contemporary alternate history in popular literature Elements of alternate history The boundaries of alternate history Alternate history in other media On radio In films On television Role-playing games Video games Points of divergence Counterfactual history Sidewise Award for Alternate History Published alternate histories See also References Further reading External links Interactive sites Non-interactive sites Wikipedia: Audiogalaxy Audiogalaxy, formerly located at http://www.audiogalaxy. External links References Wikipedia: Atomic orbital An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of an electron in an atom. The region in which an electron may be found around a single atom in a particular energy state can be calculated from this function. Orbital names Formal quantum mechanical definition Connection to uncertainty relation Hydrogen-like atoms Qualitative characterization Limitations on the quantum numbers The shapes of orbitals Orbitals table Orbital energy Electron placement and the periodic table See also References External links Wikipedia: Amino acid In chemistry, an amino acid is a molecule that contains both amine and carboxyl functional groups. In biochemistry, this term refers to alpha-amino acids with the general formula H2NCHRCOOH, where R is an organic substituent. Overview Functions in proteins Non-protein functions General structure Isomerism Reactions Peptide bond formation Zwitterions Hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids Table of standard amino acid abbreviations and side chain properties Nonstandard amino acids Uses in technology Nutritional importance See also References and notes Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alan Turing | birth_place = London, England Childhood and youth University and his work on computability Cryptanalysis The Turing-Welchman bombe Hut 8 and Naval Enigma Early computers and the Turing Test Pattern formation and mathematical biology Prosecution for homosexual acts and Turing's death Posthumous recognition Turing in fiction Further reading See also References External links Papers Wikipedia: Area Evan's Web site Wikipedia: Astronomical unit The astronomical unit (AU or au or a.u. History Examples See also References External links Wikipedia: Artist The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The normal meaning in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. Dictionary definitions History of the term The present day concept of an 'artist' Examples of art and artists See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Actaeon In Greek mythology, Actaeon (Greek: Aktaion), son of the priestly herdsman Aristaeus and Autonoe in Boeotia, was a famous Theban hero,Through his mother he was a member of the ruling House of Cadmus. trained by the centaur Cheiron,Like Achilles of a later generation. The plot Actaeon in art Notes Sources and references Wikipedia: Anglicanism Anglicanism is the beliefs and practices of Christian churches which either have historical connections with the Church of England or maintain a liturgy compatible with it. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a Medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 meaning the English Church. Terminology Anglicanism defined Doctrine Catholic and Reformed Guiding principles Anglican divines Churchmanship Sacramental doctrine and practice Eucharistic theology Practices: prayer and worship Book of Common Prayer Anglican worship: an overview Eucharistic discipline Divine Office Organization and mission of the Church Principles of governance Focus of Unity: The Archbishop of Canterbury Instruments of unity Ordained ministry Episcopate Priesthood (Presbyterate) Diaconate Laity Religious life Worldwide distribution Ecumenism Role of the Church in civilization Pacifism After World War II References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Airplane (disambiguation) The term airplane typically refers to any fixed-wing aircraft, also known as an aeroplane. Disambiguation Wikipedia: Athens Athens (Greek: Αθήνα/Athina , Katharevousa: Αθήναι/Athinai ), the capital and largest city in Greece, dominates the Attica periphery: as one of the world's oldest cities, its recorded history spans at least 3,000 years. Origin of the name History Geography Climate Pollution and Environment Government Attica Periphery Athens Prefecture Athens Municipality Demographics Culture Archaeological hub Tourism Entertainment Sports Urban Landscape Architecture Athenian Neighbourhoods Omonia Psirri and Gazi Syntagma Plaka, Monastiraki, and Thission Kolonaki Exarcheia Suburbs Landmarks Transportation Attiko Metro Electric railway (ISAP) Suburban rail (Proastiakos) Buses Tram line Taxis Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport Railways, highways and ferry connections Olympic Games 1896 Summer Olympics 1906 Summer Olympics 2004 Summer Olympics Sister cities Cities nicknamed "Athens" Photo Gallery See also References External links Photos Wikipedia: Anguilla }} History Politics Geography Climate Economy Demographics Culture Religion Language Music Sport See also References External links Wikipedia: Ashmore and Cartier Islands The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands are two groups of small low-lying uninhabited tropical islands in the Indian Ocean situated on the edge of the continental shelf north-west of Australia and south of the Indonesian island of Roti at . Geography Government Ecology and environment Birds Economy and migration References External links See also Wikipedia: Acoustic theory Category:Fluid dynamics See also Wikipedia: Alexander Mackenzie | birth_place =Logierait, Scotland Legacy Supreme Court appointments Helen Neil Mackenzie External links Wikipedia: Annexation Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous). Usually, it is implied that the territory and population being annexed is the smaller, more peripheral or weaker of the two merging entities. Annexation and international law after 1948 Examples of annexation after 1948 Ogaden Rockall Tibet Goa East Timor Western Sahara Jerusalem Golan Kuwait See also References Further reading Wikipedia: Ashoka the Great Ashoka (Devanāgarī: अशोकः, IAST: , , Prakrit Imperial title: Devanampriya Priyadarsi (Devanāgarī: देवानांप्रिय प्रियदर्शी), "He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably") and Dhamma (Devanāgarī: धम्मः), "Lawful, Religious, Righteous") (304 BC – 232 BC) was an Indian emperor, of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled from 273 BC to 232 BC. Often cited as one of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests. but Embrace of Buddhism Policy The Edicts of Ashoka Missions to spread the Dharma/Dhamma Relations with the Hellenistic world Greek populations in India Exchange of Ambassadors Buddhist Conversion Marital alliance Historical sources Death and legacy Ashoka and Buddhist Kingship Ashoka in popular culture See also Sources Notes External links Wikipedia: Archaea The Archaea () are a major group of microorganisms. Originally named and sometimes still colloquially called archaebacteria, this latter term is deprecated since archaea are not bacteria. Habitats History of archaean microbiology Morphology and physiology Size and shape Comparison of archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic cells Cell wall and flagella Metabolism Genetics and propagation Phylogeny Origin and early evolution See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: American (word) Use of the word American in the English language differs between historical, geographical and political contexts. It derives from America, a term originally referring to all of the New World (also called the Americas), and its usage has evolved over time. Other languages History of the word Disagreement over meaning Political and cultural views Latin America Spain Canada Portugal and Brazil United States American in other contexts American in international law American in U.S. law, generally American in U.S. marketplace regulation U.S. national in other languages Alternative adjectives for U.S. citizens References See also Scholarly sources External links Wikipedia: Ada (programming language) Ada () is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language. It was originally designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull under contract to the United States Department of Defense during 1977–1983 to supersede the hundreds of programming languages then used by the US Department of Defense (DoD). Features History "Hello, world!" in Ada See also Online tutorials Organizations Compilers Tools Related programming languages Others References International Standards Rationale Books Archives External links Wikipedia: Alfonso Arau Alfonso Arau (born January 11, 1932) is a Mexican director of such films as Zapata: The Dream of a Hero, Like Water for Chocolate (adapted from the novel written by his ex-wife Laura Esquivel), A Walk in the Clouds with Keanu Reeves and Anthony Quinn, and the Hallmark Hall of Fame production A Painted House, adapted from the John Grisham novel of the same name. External links Wikipedia: Alfonso Cuarón | location = Mexico City, Mexico Childhood Early career Sólo con tu pareja International success Awards and nominations Filmography Feature films Short films Documentary films TV References External links Wikipedia: Arianism Arianism is most commonly used to refer to the theological positions made famous by the theologian Arius (c. AD 250-336), who lived and taught in Alexandria, Egypt, in the early 4th century. Origin Beliefs The Council of Nicaea and its aftermath The theological debates reopen Theodosius and the Council of Constantinople Arianism in the early medieval Germanic kingdoms "Arian" as a polemical epithet See also Bibliography Notes External links Wikipedia: August 1 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Antoninus Pius | place of birth = near Lanuvium Early life Childhood and family Marriage and Children Favour with Hadrian Emperor Death Historiography In later scholarship References External links Wikipedia: Antonine Wall The Antonine Wall is a stone and turf fortification, built by the Romans across what is now the central belt of Scotland. Although most of the wall has been destroyed over time, sections of the wall can still be seen in Bearsden, Kirkintilloch, Twechar, Croy, Falkirk and Polmont. Construction Wall abandoned Post-Roman history Grim's dyke World Heritage Status See also References External links Wikipedia: August 3 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Advanced Encryption Standard In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. Development Description of the cipher High-level cipher algorithm The SubBytes step The ShiftRows step The MixColumns step The AddRoundKey step Optimization of the cipher Security Side channel attacks FIPS Validation See also Notes and references External links Implementations C/ASM Library C++ Library Java JavaScript Other Languages File Based Encryption Wikipedia: April 26 It is the first day following the spring equinox which cannot be Easter Sunday in Western Christianity. Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical feasts External links Wikipedia: Argot Argot (French and Spanish for "slang") is primarily slang used by various groups, including but not limited to thieves and other criminals, to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations. See also Wikipedia: Anisotropy [image of the (extremely tiny) anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation] Fields of interest Computer graphics Chemistry Geology Medical Acoustics Material Science & Engineering Microfabrication External links Wikipedia: Alpha decay Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus) and transforms (or 'decays') into an atom with a mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. History Uses Toxicity References Wikipedia: Extreme poverty Extreme poverty is the most severe state of poverty, where people cannot meet basic needs for survival, such as food, water, clothing, shelter, sanitation, education and health care.Sachs, Jeffrey (2005). Statistics See also References External links Wikipedia: Analytical engine The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, was the design of a mechanical general-purpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837, but Babbage continued to work on the design until his death in 1871. Design Partial construction Influence Computer science Fiction Comparison to other early computers References External links Wikipedia: Augustus Augustus (Latin: IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•FILIVS•AVGVSTVS; September 23, 63 BC – August 19, AD 14), born Gaius Octavius Thurinus and prior to 27 BC, known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus after adoption (Latin: GAIVS•IVLIVS•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS), was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, who ruled from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. The young Octavius was adopted by his great uncle, Julius Caesar, and came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. Early life Rise to power Heir to Caesar First conflict with Antony Second Triumvirate The Roman Revolution Rebellion and marriage alliances War with Pompeius War with Antony Octavian becomes Augustus First settlement Second settlement War and expansion under Augustus Death and succession Augustus' legacy Revenue reforms Month of August Building projects See also Notes References Further reading External links Primary sources Secondary source material Wikipedia: Geography of Antarctica |- Volcanoes See also External links Wikipedia: Demographics of Antarctica Antarctica has no indigenous inhabitants, but there are permanently- and seasonally-staffed research stations. The largest of these, McMurdo Station, has a population (summer) of about 1200 residents. See also Wikipedia: Economy of Antarctica No economic activity is conducted at present in Antarctica, except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. Antarctic fisheries in 1998-1999 (July 1- June 30) reported landing 119,898 metric tons. Antarctica Economics and finance stubs Economies by region Wikipedia: Communications in Antarctica This article is about communications in Antarctica. Telephone Television Internet See also References External links Wikipedia: Transport in Antarctica Transport in Antarctica has transformed from heroic explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica by foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport by land and predominantly air and water. Land transport Water transport Air transport External links Wikipedia: Geography of Alabama ==Physical features== Physical features Climate and soil Wetumpka Meteor Crater Public lands See also References External links Wikipedia: List of Governors of Alabama The following is a list of the Governors of the State of Alabama and Alabama Territory. There have officially been 52 governors of the state of Alabama; this official numbering skips acting governors. List of governors Governor of Alabama Territory Governors of Alabama Notes Other high offices held Living former governors References Wikipedia: Apocrypha Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning "those having been hidden away"Specifically, is the neuter plural of ἀπόκρυφος, a participle derived from the verb ἀποκρύπτω ἀποκρύπτειν, "to hide something away".) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. In Judeo-Christian theology, the term apocrypha refers to any collection of scriptural texts that falls outside the canon. Given that different denominations have different ideas about what constitutes canonical scripture, there are several different versions of the apocrypha. During sixteenth-century controversies over the biblical canon the word "apocrypha" acquired a negative connotation, and it has become a synonym for "spurious" or "false". This usage usually involves fictitious or legendary accounts that are plausible enough to commonly be considered as truth. For example, the Parson Weems account of George Washington and the cherry tree is considered apocryphal. Denotation and connotation Esoteric writings Spurious writings Other meanings Apocryphal texts by denomination Jewish apocrypha Biblical books called apocrypha New Testament apocryphal literature Notes See also External links Wikipedia: Augustus (honorific) Augustus (plural augusti), Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable", was an Ancient Roman title, which was first held by Caesar Augustus and subsequently came to be considered one of the titles of what we now call the Roman Emperors. The feminine form is Augusta. Caesar Augustus Women of the Imperial dynasty In the divided Roman Empire Legacy Triumphs See also Notes Wikipedia: Antarctic Treaty System The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of the southern 60th parallel. The Antarctic Treaty System The (Main) Antarctic Treaty Articles of the Antarctic Treaty Other agreements Meetings Members Antarctic Treaty Secretariat Legal system Argentina and Chile Australia United States Notes External links Wikipedia: Alfred Lawson Alfred William Lawson (1869-1954) was a professional baseball player, manager and league promoter from 1887 through 1916 and went on to play a pioneering role in the US aircraft industry, publishing two early aviation trade journals. In 1904, he also wrote a novel, Born Again, clearly inspired by the popular Utopian fantasy Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, an early harbinger of the metaphysical turn his career would take. Quotation References External links Wikipedia: Ames, Iowa Ames is a city located in the central part of the U.S. History Geography Demographics Politics Transportation Economy Medical Points of interest People References External links Wikipedia: Abalone Abalone (from Spanish Abulón) are a group of shellfish (mollusks) in the family Haliotidae and the Haliotis genus. They are marine snails, and belong to the suborder Rhipidoglossa (in earlier classifications) in the large class Gastropoda. Description Distribution and characteristics Abalone shell Sport harvesting California New Zealand South Africa Channel Islands Farming Consumption Species Notes External links Wikipedia: Abbess An abbess (Latin abbatissa, fem. form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior, or Mother Superior, of an abbey of nuns. References Wikipedia: Human abdomen The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning "belly") is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. Anatomically, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. Abdominal organs Surface landmarks of the anterior abdomen Horizontal lines Vertical lines Regions of the abdomen See also References Wikipedia: Abdominal surgery The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. Surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with separately in connection with the description of that organ (see stomach, kidney, liver, etc. Types Complications See also References Wikipedia: Abduction Abduction may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Abensberg Abensberg () is a town in Bavaria, Germany on the Abens, a tributary of the Danube, 18 m. S. References Wikipedia: Arminianism Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Hermanszoon, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. Its acceptance stretches through much of mainstream Protestantism. History Current landscape Theology Classical Arminianism Wesleyan Arminianism Other variations Open theism Corporate view of election Comparison to other views Common misconceptions Comparison with Calvinism Similarities Differences Comparison to Pelagianism See also Further reading Supporting Opposing Notes External links Wikipedia: The Alan Parsons Project The Alan Parsons Project was a British progressive rock band active between 1975 and 1987, founded by Scotsman Eric Woolfson and Englishman Alan Parsons. Band history The 'Project sound' Members Notable or frequent contributors Discography Albums Compilation album(s) Charting Singles Footnotes References External links Wikipedia: Almost all In mathematics, the phrase almost all has a number of specialised uses. See also References Wikipedia: Ada Byron's notes on the analytical engine Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (born Ada Byron) is renowned for her description and associated notes on Charles Babbage's design for a mechanical computer called The Analytical Engine. The analytical engine was never built, but Ada's notes are widely recognized as containing the first ever computer program. History Content External links Wikipedia: Augustine Augustine, Augustin, or Augustini may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Aromatic hydrocarbon An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene Definition IUPAC Gold Book Link is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. The term 'aromatic' was assigned before the physical mechanism determining aromaticity was discovered, and was derived from the fact that many of the compounds have a sweet scent. Benzene ring model Arene synthesis Arene reactions Benzene and derivatives of benzene Polyaromatic hydrocarbons See also External links References Wikipedia: Abbey An abbey (from Latin abbatia, derived from Syriac abba, "father"), is a Christian monastery or convent, under the government of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serves as the spiritual father or mother of the community. A nunnery is a convent of nuns. Origins Santa Laura, Mount Athos Benedictine monasteries Cells Westminster Abbey York Cluny English Cluniac houses Cistercian abbeys Bristol Cathedral Premonstratensians See also References Notes External links Wikipedia: Annales School The Annales School ( in French) is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales d'histoire économique et sociale (later called Annales. Economies, sociétés, civilisations, then renamed in 1994 as Annales. References Further reading Wikipedia: Antimatter In particle physics and quantum chemistry, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, whereby antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. For example an antielectron (a positron, an electron with a positive charge) and an antiproton (a proton with a negative charge) could form an antihydrogen atom in the same way that an electron and a proton form a normal matter hydrogen atom. History Production Artificial production Naturally occurring production Preservation Antimatter Trap Uses Medical Military Antiuniverse Antihelium Notation Cost See also References External links Wikipedia: Casa Batlló Casa Batlló is a building restored by Antoni Gaudí and Josep Maria Jujol, built in the year 1877 and remodelled in the years 1905–1907; located at 43, Passeig de Gràcia (passeig is Catalan for promenade or avenue), part of the Illa de la Discòrdia in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Catalonia. External links Wikipedia: Park Güell Park Güell is a 17, 18 ha wide garden complex with architectural elements situated on the hill of el Carmel in the Gràcia district of Barcelona, Catalonia. It was designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí and built in the years 1900 to 1914. Origins as a housing development Municipal garden Recent events Gallery of images References External links Wikipedia: Casa Milà Casa Milà, better known as La Pedrera (Catalan for 'The Quarry'), is a building designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí and built in the years 1905–1907. It is located at 92, Passeig de Gràcia ('passeig' is Catalan for promenade or avenue) in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Architecture Casa Milà in the media and literature See also References External links Wikipedia: Antiparticle Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. (The exceptions are massless gauge bosons such as the photon. History Experiment Hole theory Particle-antiparticle annihilation Properties of antiparticles Quantum field theory The Feynman-Stueckelberg interpretation See also References Wikipedia: Arabian Prince | Died = Biography Discography Solo With N.W.A Notes External links Video links Wikipedia: August 7 The Northern Hemisphere is considered to be halfway through its summer on this day. Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 8 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: April 16 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical feast days External links Wikipedia: Associativity In mathematics, associativity is a property that a binary operation can have. It means that, within an expression containing two or more of the same associative operators in a row, the order of operations does not matter as long as the sequence of the operands is not changed. Definition Examples Non-associativity More examples See also Wikipedia: Apache Software Foundation Forest Hill, Maryland Projects Board of directors History External links Wikipedia: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is the short title of United States Public Law 101-336, 104 Stat. 327 ( July 26, 1990), codified at et seq. Main Section Title I - Employment Title II - Public Services (and public transportation) Title III - Public Accommodations (and Commercial Facilities) Title IV - Telecommunications Title V - Miscellaneous Provisions Groups that worked to pass the ADA Quote Criticism References See also Related categories External links Wikipedia: Apple I The Apple I, also known as the Apple-1, was an early personal computer. It was designed by Steve Wozniak for personal use. References External links Wikipedia: Apatosaurus Apatosaurus (), popularly (though incorrectly) known as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period. It was one of the largest land animals that ever existed, with an average length of 23 meters (75 ft) and a mass of at least 23 metric tons (25 short tons). Discovery and species Apatosaurus/Brontosaurus Paleobiology Neck Physiology Tail Classification See also Notes References Wikipedia: Allosaurus Allosaurus () is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago, in the late Jurassic period. The first remains that can definitely be ascribed to this genus were described in 1877 by Othniel Charles Marsh. Description Skull Postcranial skeleton Classification Discovery and history Early discoveries and research Cleveland-Lloyd discoveries Recent work: 1980s–present "Big Al" Species and taxonomy Paleoecology Paleobiology Life history Feeding Social behavior Brain and senses Cultural depictions References External links Wikipedia: AK-47 #AKM_break-off|date=December 2007}} History Design background Design concept Receiver development history Features Operating cycle Disassembly Ballistics Variants Production outside of the Soviet Union/Russia Derivatives Licensing Illicit trade Legal status Cultural influence Kalashnikov Museum See also Notes References and further reading External links Manual Wikipedia: Atanasoff–Berry Computer The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the first electronic digital computing device.Ralston, Anthony & Meek, Christopher, ed. Design and construction Comparison with other early computers Function Replica See also References External links Wikipedia: ACCU (organisation) ACCU (previously known as Association of C and C++ Users) is a worldwide organisation of people interested in programming languages. Originally, the association was primarily for C programmers (it was then called the CUG), but it has since added C++, C#, Java, Perl, and Python programmers to its membership. External links Wikipedia: Andrew (disambiguation) As a first name, Andrew (from a Greek word meaning "manly" or "courageous") may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Andes The Andes is the longest mountain range on the landExplanation: The world's longest mountain range is Ocean ridge, with a total length of .. It forms a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Name Physical features Geology Climate Fauna and flora The people Mountaineering/Surveying Transportation Agriculture Mining Peaks Argentina Border between Argentina and Chile Bolivia Border between Bolivia and Chile Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Venezuela References External links Wikipedia: Ancylopoda Ancylopoda, is a group of mammals in the Perissodactyla that show long, curved and cleft claws. Morphological evidence indicates the Ancylopoda diverged from the tapirs, rhinoceroses and horses (Euperissodactyla) after the Brontotheria, however earlier authoritites such as Osborn sometimes considered the Ancylopoda to be outside Perissodactyla or, as was popular more recently, to be related to Brontotheria. Prehistoric mammal stubs Prehistoric perissodactyls Wikipedia: European anchovy The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) is a fish somewhat related to the herring. Anchovies are placed in the family Engraulidae. Distribution Zuider Zee and English Channel Black and Azov seas References Wikipedia: Anchor An anchor is an object, often made out of metal, that is used to attach a ship to the bottom of a body of water at a specific point. There are two primary classes of anchors—temporary and permanent. Development Designs of temporary anchors Fisherman Fluke Grapnel CQR/Plough Bruce/Claw Modern designs Designs of permanent anchors Mushroom Deadweight Screw Anchoring techniques Anchoring gear Anchoring Is the anchorage protected? Is the seabed good holding ground? What is the depth, tidal range, and the current tide state? Is there enough room? Methods Forked moor Bow and stern Bahamian moor Backing an anchor Kedging In Heraldry References External links Wikipedia: Anbar Anbar () was a town in Iraq, at lat. 33 deg. References Wikipedia: Anazarbus Anazarbus (med. Ain Zarba; mod. Notable people References Wikipedia: Anagram An anagram (Greek anagramma 'letters written anew', passive participle of ana- 'again' + gramma 'letter') is a type of word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce other words, using all the original letters exactly once; e.g. History Pseudonyms Examples Music Literature Summary anagrams Astronomy Notable anagrams Methods Crosswords Anagrammy Awards Games and puzzles See also References External links Wikipedia: Anadyr River Anadyr () is a river in the extreme northeast of Siberia, Russia. See also References Wikipedia: André-Marie Ampère | birth_place = Poleymieux, Lyon, France Early days Contributions to physics and further studies Legacy and final days References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Amoeba Amoeba (sometimes amœba or ameba, plural amoebae) is a genus of protozoa that moves by means of pseudopods, and is well-known as a representative unicellular organism. The word amoeba or ameba is variously used to refer to it and its close relatives, now grouped as the Amoebozoa, or to all protozoa that move using pseudopods, otherwise termed amoeboids. Habitat and uses Anatomy Reaction to stimuli Hypertonic and hypotonic solutions Amoebic cysts Marine amoeba Amoebas pathogenic to humans References External links Wikipedia: Ammonia | Section2 = Structure and basic chemical properties Natural occurence History Synthesis and production Biosynthesis Properties Formation of salts Acidity Formation of other compounds Ammonia as a ligand Uses Nitric Acid production Fertilizer Refrigeration Disinfectant Fuel Cigarettes Illicit Drug Manufacture Ammonia's role in biologic systems and human disease Theoretical role in alternative biochemistry Liquid ammonia as a solvent Solubility of salts Solutions of metals Redox properties of liquid ammonia Detection and determination Interstellar space Safety precautions Toxicity and storage information Household use Laboratory use of ammonia solutions Laboratory use of anhydrous ammonia (gas or liquid) Safety See also References Bibliography External links Wikipedia: Amethyst Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz often used as an ornament. The name comes from the Greek a ("not") and methustos ("to intoxicate"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness; the ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. Chemistry Composition Hue and Tone History Alternate terminology Geographic distribution Value Amethyst in folklore and astrology See also Notes References Wikipedia: Albertosaurus Albertosaurus (; meaning 'Alberta lizard') is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, more than 70 million years ago. The type species, A. Description Classification and systematics Discovery and naming Early discoveries Dry Island bonebed Gorgosaurus libratus Other discoveries Paleobiology Growth pattern Life history Pack behavior Paleoecology References External links Wikipedia: Assembly language See the terminology section below for information regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. Key concepts Assembly language Language design Basic elements Macros Support for structured programming Use of assembly language Historical perspective Current usage Typical applications Further details Example listing of assembly language source code References Books See also External links Software Wikipedia: Ambrosia In ancient Greek mythology, ambrosia () is sometimes the food, sometimes the drink, of the gods, often depicted as conferring immortality on whoever consumes it. Etymology Examples of ambrosia in mythology See also References Wikipedia: Ambrose Saint AmbroseKnown in Latin and Low Franconian as Ambrosius, in Italian as Ambrogio and in Lombard as Ambroeus. (c. Life Worldly career Bishop of Milan Ambrose and Arians Ambrose and emperors Character Theology Writings Church music Ambrose and reading See also Notes External links References Wikipedia: Ambracia Ambracia, occasionally Ampracia (Greek: ancient Ἀμπρακία; modern Αμβρακία), was an ancient Corinthian colony, situated about 7 miles from the Ambracian Gulf in Greece, on a bend of the navigable river Arachthos (or Aratthus), in the midst of a fertile wooded plain. Ambraciotes Artists Athletes Various References Wikipedia: Amber Amber is the name for fossil resin or tree sap that is appreciated for its colour. It is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewellery. Chemistry of amber Amber in geology Amber inclusions Amber locations Baltic amber Other locations Amber treatments Amber art and ornament See also References External links Wikipedia: Amalaric Amalaric, or in Spanish and Portuguese, Amalarico, (502Brockhaus Geschichte Second Edition – 531) was a son of king Alaric II and of Theodegotho, daughter of Theodoric the Great and his first wife. Amalaric was himself king of the Visigoths from 526 till he was assassinated in 531. Notes References Wikipedia: Alphorn The alphorn or alpenhorn is a wind instrument, consisting of a natural wooden horn of conical bore, having a cup-shaped mouthpiece, used by mountain dwellers in Switzerland and elsewhere. Similar wooden horns were used in most mountainous regions of Europe, from Sweden to the Romanian Carpathians. Origins Construction Music for Alphorn References External links Wikipedia: Alpaca | image = Rose Hill Farm Alpaca 03.jpg Background Behavior Spitting Physical contact Hygiene Sounds Reproduction History of the scientific name Alpaca fiber History of fiber industry Poisonous to Alpacas Prices US speculative bubble Notes References External links Wikipedia: Army An army (from Latin armata "act of arming" via Old French armée), in the broadest sense, is the land-based armed forces of a nation. It may also include other branches of the military such as an air force. Field Army See also Wikipedia: Applied mathematics Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains. Divisions of applied mathematics Usefulness of applied mathematics Status in academic departments See also External links Wikipedia: Alligatoridae Alligators and caimans are archosaurs, small species of crocodilians and forming the family Alligatoridae (sometimes regarded instead as the subfamily Alligatorinae). Species Cultural aspects Wikipedia: Aleutian Islands The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900 km) westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward the Kamchatka Peninsula. Crossing longitude 180°, they are the westernmost part of the United States (and technically also the easternmost; see Extreme points of the United States). Geography Climate Flora Economy Demographics History Prehistory Christian influences US possession World War II Recent and miscellaneous developments Miscellaneous See also References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Alderfly Alderflies are neuropterous insects of the family Sialidae. They are closely related to the dobsonflies, and have long filamentous antennae and four large wings, of which the anterior pair is slightly longer than the posterior. External links References Wikipedia: Alder Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family (Family Betulaceae). The genus comprises about 30 species of monoecious trees and shrubs, few reaching large size, distributed throughout the North Temperate zone, and in the New World also along the Andes southwards to Chile. Varieties Uses Word origin Classification References and external links Wikipedia: Amos Bronson Alcott Amos Bronson Alcott (November 29, 1799 - March 4, 1888) was an American teacher and writer. He is remembered for founding a short-lived and unconventional school as well as a utopian community known as "Fruitlands", and for his association with Transcendentalism. Life and work Early life Educator Later life Criticisms References Notes Sources Wikipedia: Arachnophobia Arachnophobia (from Greek arachne (αράχνη), "spider" and phobia (φοβία), "fear" ) is a specific phobia, an abnormal fear of spiders and sometimes other arachnids, such as scorpions and harvestmen. It is among the most common of all phobias. References Wikipedia: Alabaster Alabaster (sometimes called satin spar) is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals: gypsum (a hydrous sulfate of calcium) and calcite (a carbonate of calcium). The former is the alabaster of the present day; the latter is generally the alabaster of the ancients. Etymology Types Calcite alabaster Black alabaster Uses Further reading See also Wikipedia: Apostle An apostle is a messenger and ambassador. See also Wikipedia: Ahab Ahab (or Ach'av or ) was king of Israel and the son and successor of Omri (1 Kings 16:29-34). William F. Biography Legacy External links Wikipedia: ASIC (disambiguation) The acronym ASIC, depending on context, may stand for: See also Wikipedia: Dasyproctidae The Dasyproctidae are a family of large South American rodents, comprising the agoutis and acouchis. Their fur is a reddish or dark colour above, with a paler underside. Classification References Wikipedia: Algol | Observation history System Etymology and cultural significance Astrology Modern fiction References External links Wikipedia: Amazing Grace "Amazing Grace" is a Christian hymn. The words were written late in 1772 by Englishman John Newton. History Extra verses Alternate versions Cherokee lyrics Bagpipes Artists who have recorded the song Movie Awards References External links Audio samples Wikipedia: AOL |industry=Internet & Communications Description History Growth Change in focus Moving of headquarters TMZ.com Controversies Community leaders Billing disputes Account cancellation Software Usenet newsgroups Terms of Service (TOS) Certified e-mail Search data Company purchases Company sales Notable people associated with AOL Online security services AOL Keywords Free services UnCut Video AOL Local YouTube partnership Xdrive Movie studios partnership See also External links References Wikipedia: Algebra Algebra is a branch of mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation and quantity. The name is derived from the treatise written by the PersianSee the references Toomer, Hogendijk 1998, Oaks cited in the article on . Classification Elementary algebra Polynomials Abstract algebra Groups—structures of a set with a single binary operation Rings and fields—structures of a set with two particular binary operations, (+) and (×) Objects called algebras History See also References External links Wikipedia: Anno Domini Anno Domini May also be spelled "Anno Domine." ( by speakers of English; ), Blackburn & Holford-Strevens p. History Popularization Synonyms Common Era Anno Salutis Numbering of years Notes and references External links Wikipedia: AV AV may mean: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Alcuin Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus or Ealhwine (c. 735 – May 19, 804) was a scholar, ecclesiastic, poet and teacher from York, England. Biography As a Carolingian Renaissance figure On freedom of conscience Further reading Notes References External links Wikipedia: Angilbert |feast_day=18 February Career References External links Wikipedia: Amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. In structure, amines resemble ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic substituents such as alkyl and aryl groups. Introduction Aliphatic Amines Aromatic amines Naming conventions Physical properties General properties Chirality Properties as bases Biological activity Use of amines Dyes Drugs Gas Treatment See also References Wikipedia: April 29 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical feasts External links Wikipedia: August 14 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Absolute zero Absolute zero describes a theoretical system that neither emits nor absorbs energy. It is the point at which particles have a minimum energy, determined by quantum mechanical effects, which is called the zero-point energy. History Limit to the 'degree of cold' Lord Kelvin's work Achieving record temperatures near absolute zero Thermodynamics near absolute zero Absolute temperature scales Negative temperatures See also References Notes Wikipedia: Adiabatic process In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process or an isocaloric process is a thermodynamic process in which no heat is transferred to or from the working fluid. The term "adiabatic" literally means impassable (from Greek ἀ-διὰ-βαῖνειν, "ah-theeah-vainaein," not-through-to pass), corresponding here to an absence of heat transfer. Ideal gas Derivation of continuous formula Derivation of discrete formula Graphing adiabats See also Wikipedia: Amide In chemistry, an amide is one of three kinds of compounds: Amide linkage (peptide bond) Amide properties Solubility Derivatives Naming conventions References External links Wikipedia: Animism The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning "soul".Segal, p. Origin The term Examples Diversity Overview Animal Souls Plant souls Object souls Animism and death Independent spirits Differences between animism and religion Animism and the origin of religion Animism and mythology Animism in philosophy Sir Edward Burnett Tylor List of phenomena believed to lead to animism The new animism See also Suggested reading Notes References Wikipedia: Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678 – July 28, 1741),Antonio Vivaldi from Quote: born March 4, 1678, Venice, Republic of Venice [Italy] died July 28, 1741, Vienna, Austria nicknamed Il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest"), was a Venetian priest and baroque music composer, as well as a famous virtuoso violinist; he was born and raised in the Republic of Venice. Biography Youth At the Ospedale della Pietà Opera Impresario Maturity Late life and death Style and influence Posthumous reputation 1926 and 1930 discoveries Recent discoveries Works Works published during his lifetime Operas Concerti Sacred Works Media Selected Performance ensembles specialising in Vivaldi References and further reading See also External links Wikipedia: Adrian The male given name Adrian is derived from the Latin Hadrianus, which is more familiar to English speakers as Hadrian. The name means "from Adria", a port on the Adriatic Sea. Male forms Female forms Popes Historical people As a surname Recent people Places Canada Romania United States Other meanings See also Wikipedia: Aar The Aar (German Aare) is the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.Bridgwater, W. Course Aar Gorge List of Tributaries History References External links Wikipedia: Abbotsford House Abbotsford is a historic house in the region of the Scottish Borders in the south of Scotland, near Melrose, on the south bank of the River Tweed. It was formerly the residence of historical novelist and poet, Walter Scott. References External links Wikipedia: Abraham Abraham ( Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom ; , ; Ge'ez: , ) is a figure in the Torah, Bible, and Quran whom Jewish, Christian and Muslim believers regard as the founding patriarch of the Israelites, Ishamelites and Edomite peoples. In what is thus called Abrahamic religious tradition, Abraham is the forefather of these peoples. In the Torah Origins and calling Sarai and Pharaoh Chedorlaomer and Melchisedek Birth of Ishmael Covenant Sodom and Gomorrah Sarah and Abimelech Beersheba Binding of Isaac Death of Sarah A wife for Isaac Last years of Abraham Significance In Christianity In Islam Arab connection According to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints In philosophy Textual criticism Dating and historicity Traditional dating History of dating attempts Speculations on Hindu connections Notes References See also Wikipedia: Abraxas The word Abraxas (or Abrasax or Abracax) was engraved on certain antique stones, called on that account Abraxas stones, which were used as amulets or charms. The name is found in the Greek Magical Papyri, and the word may be related to the word abracadabra, although other explanations exist. Appearance and meaning Quotes Tertullian Carl Jung (The Seven Sermons to the Dead) E. A. Wallis Budge Abraxas in fiction External links Wikipedia: Absalom Absalom or Avshalom (אַבְשָׁלוֹם "Father/Leader of/is peace", Standard Hebrew Avšalom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇšālôm), in the Allusions to Absalom External links Wikipedia: Abydos Abydos may mean: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Abydos, Egypt Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس, Greek Αβυδος), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, is about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N. It was the capital of the eighth Nome of Upper Egypt. History Worship Temples built 18th dynasty Nineteenth dynasty temples Great Temple of Abydos Ramesses II temple Tombs "Forts" Other See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: Abydos, Hellespont Abydos, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nara Burnu or Nagara Point on the best harbor on the Asiatic shore of the Hellespont. Across Abydos lies Sestus on the European side marking the shortest point in the Dardanelles, scarcely a mile broad. References Footnotes Additional sources Wikipedia: August 15 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Abu al-Fida | Life Works External links References Wikipedia: Acacia Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described in Africa by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus in 1773. Classification Geography Description Symbiosis Pests Uses Food uses Gum Medicinal uses Ornamental uses Paints Perfume Symbolism and ritual Tannin Wood Phytochemistry of Acacias Alkaloids List of Acacia Species Having Little or No Alkaloids in the Material Sampled: ===== Cyanogenic glycosides Species Famous acacia Identification gallery Flowers Bark Foliage Seed pods Seeds Thorns Tree See also References Notes General references External links Wikipedia: Acapulco |subdivision_type1 = State Toponymy Geography History Archaic Era Pre-Colonial Era Spanish Era The Golden era of Acapulco Present day Acapulco as a holiday resort Transportation Attractions Notable residents References External links See also Wikipedia: Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. The Adriatic Sea is a part of the Mediterranean Sea. Name and etymology Extent and Bathymetry Coasts and islands Miscellaneous See also External links Wikipedia: August 16 == Events == Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Alan Kay | birth_place = Early life and work Recent work and recognition Squeak, Etoys, and Croquet Tweak Children's Machine Reinventing programming Awards and honors Personal background Famous quotations References Articles External links Wikipedia: APL (programming language) APL (A Programming Language) is an array programming language based on a notation invented in 1957 by Kenneth E. Iverson while at Harvard University. Overview Examples Calculation Interpreters Evolution Compilation Terminology Character set APL symbols and keyboard layout Usage Standardization Quotes See also References External links Wikipedia: ALGOL ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages originally developed in the mid 1950s which greatly influenced many other languages, and became the de facto way algorithms were described in text-books and academic works for almost the next 30 years. It was designed to avoid some of the perceived problems with FORTRAN and eventually gave rise to many other programming languages (including Pascal). History True ALGOL 60s specification and implementation timeline Properties Code sample (ALGOL 60) Timeline: Hello world ALGOL 58 (IAL) ALGOL 60 family ALGOL 68 ALGOL 60 Reserved words and restricted identifiers See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: AWK (programming language) {{Infobox programming language Structure of AWK programs AWK commands The print command Variables and Syntax User-defined functions Sample applications Hello World Print lines longer than 80 characters Print a count of words Sum last word Match a range of input lines Calculate word frequencies Self-contained AWK scripts AWK versions and implementations Books References See also External links Wikipedia: Augustus De Morgan Augustus De Morgan (June 27, 1806 – March 18, 1871) was a British mathematician and logician, born Madura, Madras Presidency, India (now Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India). Biography Childhood University education London University Retirement and death Mathematical work Relations Legacy Notes References External links See also Wikipedia: Asgard In Norse religion and Norse mythology, Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the country or capital city of the Æsir. In the most ancient view, the Æsir were the gods. Sources Snorri Sturluson Prose Edda Prologue The deluding of Gylfi Ynglinga Saga Poetic Edda Other spellings Notes Bibliography Wikipedia: Apollo program The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961 – 1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. President John F. Background Choosing a mission mode Spacecraft Command/service module Lunar module Boosters Saturn V Saturn IB Missions Mission types Unmanned missions Manned missions Samples returned Legacy Cancelled missions Apollo applications program Cultural legacy Influence on future human space exploration Constellation program See also Notes References Further reading External links Related content Wikipedia: Assault Assault is a crime of violence against another person. In some jurisdictions, including Australia and New Zealand assault refer to an act that causes another to apprehend immediate and personal violence, while in other jurisdictions, such as the United States, assault refers only to the threat of violence caused by an immediate show of force. American jurisprudence Aggravated assault General defenses to assaults Consent Arrest and other official acts Punishment Self-defense Prevention of crime Defense of property Assault in England and Wales Variations of assault in England and Wales Racially/religiously aggravated assault Assault with intent to resist arrest Assault upon a constable in the execution of his duty See also References External links Wikipedia: Álfheimr Álfheimr or Alfheim (Elf-home) is the abode of the Álfar "Elves" in Norse mythology and appears also in northern English ballads under the forms Elfhame and Elphame, sometimes modernized as Elfland or Elfenland. It is also an ancient name for the area between the modern Swedish province of Bohuslän and the present Norwegian county of Østfold. The Elven abode In Old Norse texts In English text Used by J. R. R. Tolkien The region in Scandinavia About the region and its folk Traditions of Álf the Old Later kings of Álfheim Stuff of Legend On the borders of history Variant spellings References Wikipedia: Ask and Embla In Norse Mythology, Ask and Embla (ON: Askr ok Embla) were the first two humans created by the gods. Creation External links Wikipedia: Alabama River The Alabama River, in the U.S. External links Wikipedia: Alain de Lille Alain de Lille (or Alanus ab Insulis) (c. 1128 - 1202), French theologian and poet, was born, probably in Lille, some years before 1128. Quotes References External links Further reading Wikipedia: Alamanni The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today part of Germany. One of the earliest references to them is the cognomen Alamannicus assumed by Caracalla, who ruled the Roman Empire from 211-217 and claimed thereby to be their defeater. Language Origin Name First explicit mention Alemanni and Hermunduri Ptolemy's Geography Concentration of Germanic peoples under Ariovistus Conflicts with the Roman Empire List of battles between Romans and Alamanni Alamanni and Franks List of Alamannic rulers Independent kings Dukes under Frankish suzerainty Christianization Alemannic dialects Notes References External links Wikipedia: American Stock Exchange | nearest_city = History Market See also Further reading References External links Wikipedia: August 17 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 12 It is the peak of the Perseid meteor shower. It is also known as the "Glorious Twelfth" in the UK, as it marks the traditional start of the grouse shooting season. Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Constitutional history of Australia ==Emergence of the Commonwealth of Australia== Emergence of the Commonwealth of Australia The Commonwealth is born From a united empire crown to a shared monarch The Statute of Westminster The Australia Act An evolving independence Crisis in 1975 Towards an Australian republic? References See also External links Wikipedia: Alfred Russel Wallace | birth_place = Usk, Monmouthshire, Wales Biography Early life Exploration and study of the natural world Return to England, marriage and children Financial struggles Social activism Death Theory of evolution Early evolutionary thinking Natural selection and Darwin Differences between Darwin's and Wallace's ideas on natural selection Warning colouration and sexual selection Wallace effect Application of theory to man, and role of teleology in evolution Assessment of Wallace's role in history of evolutionary theory Spiritualism Biogeography and ecology Environmental issues Other controversies Flat earth wager Anti-vaccination campaign Martian canals Legacy and historical perception Awards, honours, and memorials Writings by Wallace Selected books Selected papers See also Notes References Further reading External links Wikipedia: Australian Labor Party The Australian Labor Party is an Australian political party. Policy Early ideology Modern Labor History Etymology Leaders Labor splits Structure ALP State and Territory Parliamentary Leaders Current Past Premiers and Chief Ministers Other past Labor politicians See also Notes References External links Wikipedia: August 18 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 19 == Events == Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 20 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: August 21 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Dodo (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) The Dodo is a fictional character appearing in Chapters 2 and 3 of the book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). It is a reference to Dodgson himself who had a stutter and very frequently pronounced his name "Do-do-dodgson". Disney movie Wikipedia: Lory Lory may refer too: See also Wikipedia: Eaglet (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland) The Eaglet is a character appearing in Chapter 2 and 3 of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, a reference to Edith Liddell, Alice's sister. Alice characters Fictional birds of prey Wikipedia: Albert Albert is a common first name. The name has its origins in the Germanic name Adalbrecht, meaning "noble-bright'Albert may refer to: See also Wikipedia: Albert I Albert I is the name of several historical people: Lists of ambiguous human names Wikipedia: Albert II Albert II is the name of several monarchs: Lists of ambiguous human names Wikipedia: Albert III Albert III may mean: Lists of ambiguous human names Wikipedia: Albert Alcibiades, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach Albert Alcibiades (; March 28 1522- January 8 1557) was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, also known as Brandenburg-Bayreuth. Because of his bellicose nature Albert received the cognomen Alcibiades after his death; during his lifetime Albert was known as Bellator (the Warlike). Biography References Wikipedia: Albert the Bear Albert the Bear (; c. 1100–18 November 1170) was the first Margrave of Brandenburg (as Albert I) from 1157 to his death and was briefly Duke of Saxony between 1138 and 1142. Life Cognomen Family and children External links Wikipedia: Albert of Mainz Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern (German: ; June 28, 1490 – September 24, 1545) was Elector and Archbishop of Mainz from 1514 to 1545, and Archbishop of Magdeburg from 1513 to 1545. Biography References Wikipedia: Albert, Duke of Prussia Albert (; ; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of the Duchy of Prussia, which was the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. Early life Grand Master Duke of Prussia Ancestors References External links Wikipedia: August 25 ==Events== Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances External links Wikipedia: Aachen (Ripuarian: Oche, Dutch: Aken, Spanish: Aquisgrán, French, and, historically, English: Aix-la-Chapelle) is a historic spa city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the westernmost city of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km west of Cologne. History Middle Ages 18th century 20th century Main sights Economy Sports Awards Miscellaneous Education Sister cities Name in different languages See also Notes External links Wikipedia: Agate This article is about the semi-precious stone. For other uses, see Agate (disambiguation). Formation and characteristics Types of agate Agate beliefs Uses in industry See also Notes References Wikipedia: Aspirin , History Trademark issues Synthesis Therapeutic uses Veterinary uses Experimental uses Contraindications Adverse effects Gastrointestinal Complaints Central Effects Pediatrics Other Effects Interactions Dosage Overdose Symptoms Toxicity Treatment Epidemiology Mechanism of action Polymorphism See also References External links Wikipedia: Abner In the Book of Samuel, Abner (Biblical Hebrew for "father of [or is a] light"), is first cousin to Saul and commander-in-chief of his army (1 Samuel 14:50, 20:25). He is only referred to incidentally in Saul's history (1 Samuel 17:55, 26:5), and is not mentioned in the account of the disastrous battle of Gilboa when Saul's power was crushed. External links Wikipedia: Ahmed I Ahmed I (Ottoman Turkish: احمد اول Aḥmed-i evvel, Turkish:I.Ahmet) (April 18, 1590 – November 22, 1617) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1603 until his death. External links Wikipedia: Ahmed II Ahmed II (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثانى Aḥmed-i sānī) (February 25, 1643 – 1695) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1691 to 1695. Ahmed II was the son of Sultan Ibrahim I (1640–48) and succeeded his brother Suleiman II (1687–91) in 1691. External links Wikipedia: Ahmed III Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث Aḥmed-i sālis) (December 30, 1673—July 1, 1736 AD) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87). He succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II (1695–1703). Biography Character of Ahmed III's rule References External links Wikipedia: Ainu people |langs=Ainu is the traditional language. According to research by Alexander Vovin, in 1996 only 15 fluent speakers remained, and the last speaker of the Sakhalin dialect had died in 1994. Origins American continent connection History Geography Language Culture Religion Institutions Subgroups See also Notes References and further reading External links Wikipedia: Acropolis Acropolis (Gr. acro, high + polis, city) literally means a high city. External links Wikipedia: Acupuncture thumb|right|250px|Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. 1340s, [[Ming Dynasty). Traditional theory TCM perspective on treatment of disease Criticism of TCM theory History Clinical practice An example of acupuncture treatment Indications according to acupuncturists in the West Scientific theories and mechanisms of action Neurohormonal theory Histological studies Scientific Method and the Assessment of Chinese Medical Theory and Techniques Views of proponents Views of critics Scientific research into efficacy Evidence-based medicine Evidence from neuroimaging studies NIH consensus statement American Medical Association statement German study Nonacupuncture points Safety and risks Common, minor adverse events Other injury Risks from omitting orthodox medical care Safety compared to other treatments Legal and political status United States Canada United Kingdom Australia See also Bibliography Foototes External links Wikipedia: Adder Adder may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Aeneas This article is about the Roman hero. For other uses, see Aeneas (disambiguation). Mythology Family and legendary descendants Medieval literature Family tree References Wikipedia: April 13 It is also the Ides (middle day) of April. Events Births Deaths Holidays and observances Liturgical feasts External links Wikipedia: Amaranth Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth or pigweed, is a cosmopolitan genus of herbs. Approximately 60 species are presently recognised, with inflorescences and foliage ranging from purple and red to gold. Systematics Uses Grain amaranth Vegetables Dyes Ornamentals Nutritional value Amaranth as a weed Myth, legend and poetry See also Images Notes Sources External links Wikipedia: Agapanthus africanus Agapanthus africanus (African lily; syn. Agapanthus umbellatus) is a member of the family Alliaceae and a native of the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. Cultivation References External links Wikipedia: Agamemnon Agamemnon (Greek: "very resolute") is one of the most distinguished of the Greek heroes. He is the son of King Atreus of Mycenae and Queen Aerope, and brother of Menelaus. Early life Return to Greece Other stories Agamemnon in fiction See also References Primary sources Secondary sources Wikipedia: Aga Khan I Aga Khan I, also Āghā Khān I and Āqā Khān I (), was the title accorded to Ḥasan ‘Alī Shāh (, b. 1804 in Kahak; d. Early life and family Governorship of Kirman Final years References External links Wikipedia: Aga Khan III Sultan Mahommed Shah, Aga Khan III GCMG GCSI GCIE GCVO PC (November 2, 1877 – July 11, 1957) was the 48th Imam of the Shia Ismaili Muslims. He was one of the founders and the first president of the All-India Muslim League, and served as President of the League of Nations from 1937-38. Early life Career Race horse owner Marriages and children Publications Death and succession See also References Additional reading External links Wikipedia: Agasias Agasias was the name of several different people in Classical history, including two different Greek sculptors. Disambiguation Wikipedia: Alexander Emanuel Agassiz Alexander Emanuel Agassiz (December 17, 1835 – March 27, 1910), son of Louis Agassiz and stepson of Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, was an American scientist and engineer. See also Works Further reading External links Wikipedia: Agathon Agathon () (ca. 448–400 BC) was an Athenian tragic poet and friend of Euripides and Plato. See also External links References Wikipedia: Agesilaus II Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek ) (444 BC – 360 BC), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger half-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing him as the son of Alcibiades. External links Wikipedia: Agis Agis may refer to: Disambiguation Wikipedia: Antonio Agliardi Antonio Cardinal Agliardi (September 4, 1832 – May 1, 1915) was a Roman Catholic Cardinal, archbishop, and papal diplomat. He was born at Cologno (Bergamo), Italy. References Wikipedia: Agnes of Merania Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania (d. 1201), queen of France, was the daughter of Bertold IV (d. References Wikipedia: Agni | Sanskrit_Transliteration = Agni Depictions Agni in the Vedas Agni in other faiths and religions See also References Wikipedia: Agrippina the Elder (Vipsania) Agrippina (Classical Latin: AGRIPPINA•GERMANICI (edd.), Prosopographia Imperii Romani saeculi I, II et III (PIR), Berlin, 1933 - V 463 ), (14 BC – 18 October 33), most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina "the Elder", was one of the most prominent women in the Roman Empire in the early 1st century AD. Early life Traveling wife Time in Rome Exile and death Personality See also Footnotes References Ancient Sources Secondary Sources Wikipedia: Agrippina the Younger Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA (edd.), Prosopographia Imperii Romani saeculi I, II et III (PIR), Berlin, 1933 - I 641, Greek: η Ιουλία Αγκιππίνη, November 6 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. Early life Family Reign of Caligula Reign of Claudius Return from exile Rise to power Empress of Rome Reign of Nero Power struggle Death In later literature Perspectives on her personality Ancient Modern References Footnotes Wikipedia: American Chinese cuisine American Chinese cuisine refers to the style of food served by Chinese restaurants in the United States. This type of cooking typically caters to Western tastes, and differs significantly from the cuisine of China. History Types of restaurants Differences from native Chinese cuisines American Chinese dishes Americanized versions of native Chinese dishes Traditional take-out dishes Regional variations on American Chinese cuisine San Francisco Hawaii American Chinese chain restaurants See also External links References Wikipedia: Ahenobarbus Ahenobarbus is the gens name of a number of prominent Romans of the late Republic and early Principate. The name means "golden beard" in Latin and, according to legend, was given along with a hair color change to a Roman soldier by Castor and Pollux during the expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king. References Wikipedia: Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c.1723-1773) (Pashto/), also known as Ahmad Shāh Abdālī and born as Ahmad Khān Abdālī, was the founder of the Durrani Empire. Early years Serving Nader Shah Nader Shah's assassination Rise to power Military campaigns Third battle of Panipat Administration & government